PDB-1 from Potentilla discolor Bunge induces apoptosis and autophagy by downregulating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in A549 cells.
翻白草 PDB-1 通过下调 A549 细胞 PI3K/Akt/mTOR 信号通路诱导细胞凋亡和自噬。
- 作者列表："Zhang RR","Meng NN","Liu C","Li KL","Wang MX","Lv ZB","Chen SY","Guo X","Wang XK","Wang Q","Sun JY
:PDB-1 is a new C-27-carboxylated-lupane-triterpenoid derivative isolated from Potentilla discolor Bunge. In our previous research, PDB-1 was suggested to have an obvious selectivity for tumor cells. This study focused on clarifying PDB-1's anticancer mechanism in the inhibition of proliferation and in the induction of apoptosis and autophagy in A549 cells. In general, A549 cells were treated with PDB-1 for different times, and cell survival was assessed by a CCK8 assay. The assessment of intracellular reactive oxygen species, a mitochondrial membrane potential assay, a cell cycle assay, an annexin V-FITC/PI assay, and MDC staining were performed in A549 cells treated with PDB-1. Moreover, the mRNA and protein expression of cell cycle-, apoptosis- and autophagy-related factors were detected by RT-qPCR and western blotting. The results showed that PDB-1 inhibited A549 cell proliferation and colony formation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The decrease in the viability of A549 cells was due to a G2/M cell cycle arrest. Moreover, PDB-1 induced cell apoptosis, accompanied by an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and an increase in the expression levels of cleaved caspase-3/caspase-9. We also found that PDB-1 induced autophagy by increasing the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and elevating Beclin-1. In addition, further studies indicated that pretreatment with a specific PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) enhanced the effects of PDB-1 on the expression of proteins associated with apoptosis and autophagy, demonstrating that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway was related to PDB-1-induced apoptosis and autophagy. These results indicated that PDB-1 may be considered a potential candidate for the future treatment of lung adenocarcinoma. These findings should benefit the development of the C14-COOH type of pentacyclic triterpenoids.
: PDB-1 是从翻白草中分离得到的一种新的 C-27-carboxylated-lupane-triterpenoid 衍生物。在我们之前的研究中，PDB-1 被认为对肿瘤细胞有明显的选择性。本研究旨在阐明 PDB-1 在抑制 A549 细胞增殖、诱导细胞凋亡和自噬方面的抗癌机制。一般情况下，A549 细胞用 PDB-1 处理不同时间，通过 CCK8 试验评估细胞存活率。在 PDB-1 处理的 A549 细胞中进行细胞内活性氧评估、线粒体膜电位测定、细胞周期测定、 annexin V-FITC/PI 测定和 MDC 染色。此外，通过 RT-qPCR 和 western blotting 检测细胞周期、凋亡和自噬相关因子的 mRNA 和蛋白表达。结果表明，PDB-1 抑制 A549 细胞增殖和集落形成，且呈剂量和时间依赖性。A549 细胞活力的降低是由于 G2/M 期细胞周期阻滞。此外，PDB-1 诱导细胞凋亡，伴随着 Bax/Bcl-2 比值的增加和 cleaved caspase-3/caspase-9 表达水平的增加。我们还发现，PDB-1 通过增加 LC3-I 向 LC3-II 的转化和提高 Beclin-1 来诱导自噬。此外，进一步研究表明，特定 PI3K 抑制剂 (LY294002) 预处理可增强 PDB-1 对细胞凋亡和自噬相关蛋白表达的影响。证明 PI3K/Akt/mTOR 通路与 PDB-1-induced 凋亡和自噬有关。这些结果表明，PDB-1 可能被认为是未来肺腺癌治疗的潜在候选者。这些发现将有助于五环三萜类化合物 C14-COOH 的发展。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The objectives of this study are to assess the chest drainage volumes of patients undergoing anatomic resection of non-small cell lung carcinoma and to determine the safety and effectiveness of administering enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis. METHODS:A total of 77 patients were included in the study. A study was conducted on the first group of 42 patients in which enoxaparin prophylaxis (enoxaparin, 40 mg) was subcutaneously injected once a day for a period of three days after the patients underwent anatomic pulmonary resection between March 2016 and March 2018. An enoxaparin-free group was identified and included 35 patients who received no enoxaparin prophylaxis after undergoing anatomic pulmonary resection between February 2013 and February 2016. We compared the changes in hemoglobin (Hb) levels, postoperative 3-day drainage volume, transfusion volume, pulmonary complications and length of stay between the two groups. RESULTS:No differences in postoperative Hb levels, chest drainage volume, transfusion volume, postoperative complications, and length of stay were observed between the two groups. Deep-vein thrombosis was noted in a patient in the enoxaparin-free group. No major bleeding was noted in either group. CONCLUSION:We found that for patients undergoing anatomic resection of primary lung cancer, the blood transfusion and chest drainage volumes did not differ, regardless of whether the patients were given enoxaparin. To the best of our knowledge, the impact of low-molecular-weight heparin on chest tube drainage volume for patients undergoing anatomic resection of non-small cell lung carcinoma has not been investigated before.
METHODS::The aim of the present study was to compare the safety and efficacy of cryoablation (CA) and microwave ablation (MWA) as treatments for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC treated with CA (n=45) or MWA (n=56) were enrolled in the present study. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS); the secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS) time and adverse events (AEs). The median PFS times between the two groups were not significantly different (P=0.36): CA, 10 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 7.5-12.4] vs. MWA, 11 months (95% CI, 9.5-12.4). The OS times between the two groups were also not significantly different (P=0.07): CA, 27.5 months (95% CI, 22.8-31.2 months) vs. MWA, 18 months (95% CI, 12.5-23.5). For larger tumors (>3 cm), patients treated with MWA had significantly longer median PFS (P=0.04; MWA, 10.5 months vs. CA, 7.0 months) and OS times (P=0.04; MWA, 24.5 months vs. CA, 14.5 months) compared patients treated with CA. However, for smaller tumors (≤3 cm), median PFS (P=0.79; MWA, 11.0 months vs. CA, 13.0 months) and OS times (P=0.39; MWA, 30.0 months vs. CA, 26.5 months) between the two groups did not differ significantly. The incidence rates of AEs were similar in the two groups (P>0.05). The number of applicators, tumor size and length of the lung traversed by applicators were associated with a higher risk of pneumothorax and intra-pulmonary hemorrhage in the two groups. Treatment with CA resulted in significantly less intraprocedural pain compared with treatment with MWA (P=0.001). Overall, the present study demonstrated that CA and MWA were comparably safe and effective procedures for the treatment of small tumors. However, treatment with MWA was superior compared with CA for the treatment of large tumors.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:BRAF mutations occurring in 1%-5% of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are therapeutic targets for these cancers but the impact of the exact mutation on clinical activity is unclear. The French National Cancer Institute (INCA) launched the AcSé vemurafenib trial to assess the efficacy and safety of vemurafenib in cancers with various BRAF mutations. We herein report the results of the NSCLC cohort. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Tumour samples were screened for BRAF mutations in INCA-certified molecular genetic centres. Patients with BRAF-mutated tumours progressing after ≥1 line of treatment were proposed vemurafenib 960 mg twice daily. Between October 2014 and July 2018, 118 patients were enrolled in the NSCLC cohort. The primary outcome was the objective response rate (ORR) assessed every 8 weeks (RECIST v1.1). A sequential Bayesian approach was planned with an inefficacy bound of 10% for ORR. If no early stopping occurred, the treatment was of interest if the estimated ORR was ≥30% with a 90% probability. Secondary outcomes were tolerance, response duration, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS:Of the 118 patients enrolled, 101 presented with a BRAFV600 mutation and 17 with BRAFnonV600 mutations; the median follow-up was 23.9 months. In the BRAFnonV600 cohort, no objective response was observed and this cohort was stopped. In the BRAFV600 cohort, 43/96 patients had objective responses. The mean Bayesian estimated success rate was 44.9% [95% confidence intervals (CI) 35.2%-54.8%]. The ORR had a 99.9% probability of being ≥30%. Median response duration was 6.4 months, median PFS was 5.2 months (95% CI 3.8-6.8), and OS was 10 months (95% CI 6.8-15.7). The vemurafenib safety profile was consistent with previous publications. CONCLUSION:Routine biomarker screening of NSCLC should include BRAFV600 mutations. Vemurafenib monotherapy is effective for treating patients with BRAFV600-mutated NSCLC but not those with BRAFnonV600 mutations. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02304809.