Osteogenic and angiogenic lineage differentiated adipose-derived stem cells for bone regeneration of calvarial defects in rabbits.
- 作者列表："Wang Z","Han L","Sun T","Wang W","Li X","Wu B
AIMS:Cell sheet techniques are widely used in bone engineering. However, vascularization remains a challenge in fabricating vascularized engineered bone. The goal of this study was to induce adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) osteogenic and angiogenic lineage differentiation and investigate the use of bidiretionally differentiated ADSCs for bone regeneration. MATERIALS AND METHODS:ADSCs were cultured to form an osteogenic cell sheet. Other ADSCs were induced to differentiate into endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which were identified and characterized by morphological observation and CD31 immunofluorescent staining. Then, the ADSC sheet-EPC complexes were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice, while ADSC sheets alone were implanted as a control. After eight weeks of transplantation, microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and histological observation were used to assess bone formation. We then implanted the complexes in calvarial defects in rabbits and assessed bone repair by micro-CT and histological analysis. RESULTS:The ADSC sheets consisted of multiple layers of cells and extracellular matrix. The obtained EPCs formed capillary-like structures and expressed the specific antigen marker CD31. The osteogenic ADSC sheet-EPC complexes formed dense and well-vascularized new bone tissue at eight weeks after implantation. Bone density was significantly lower in the control group than in the complex group (p < 0.05). In addition, the reconstruction of calvarial defects in rabbits in complex group was obviously greater than that in the control group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:These results suggested that the approach of engineering bone tissue with bidiretionally differentiated ADSCs enabled bone regeneration, thus offering a promising strategy for repairing bone defects.
目的: 细胞片层技术在骨工程中应用广泛。然而，血管化仍然是构建血管化工程骨的挑战。本研究的目的是诱导脂肪干细胞 (ADSC) 成骨和血管生成谱系分化，并探讨使用比浊法分化的 ADSCs 进行骨再生。 材料和方法: 培养 ADSCs 形成成骨细胞片。将其他 ADSCs 诱导分化为内皮祖细胞 (EPCs)，通过形态学观察和 CD31 免疫荧光染色进行鉴定和表征。然后，将 ADSC 片材-EPC 复合物植入裸鼠皮下，而单独植入 ADSC 片材作为对照。移植 8 周后，采用显微计算机断层扫描 (micro-CT) 和组织学观察评估骨形成。然后我们将复合物植入兔颅骨缺损中，通过 micro-CT 和组织学分析评估骨修复。 结果: ADSC 片层由多层细胞和细胞外基质组成。获得的 EPCs 形成毛细血管样结构，表达特异性抗原标记物 cd31。植入后 8 周，成骨 ADSC 片-EPC 复合物形成致密、血管化良好的新骨组织。对照组骨密度明显低于复合组 (p <0.05)。复合组兔颅骨缺损重建明显大于对照组 (p <0.05)。 结论: 本研究结果表明，ADSCs 的成骨组织工程方法能够促进骨再生，为骨缺损的修复提供了一种新的途径。
METHODS:Purpose To determine outcomes of transphyseal ACL reconstruction using a living parental hamstring tendon allograft in a consecutive series of 100 children. Methods One hundred consecutive juveniles undergoing ACL reconstruction with a living parental hamstring allograft were recruited prospectively and reviewed 2 years after ACL reconstruction with IKDC Knee Ligament Evaluation, and KT1000 instrumented laxity testing. Skeletally immature participants obtained annual radiographs until skeletal maturity, and long leg alignment radiographs at 2 years. Radiographic Posterior tibial slope was recorded. Results Of 100 juveniles, the median age was 14 years (range 8–16) and 68% male. At surgery, 30 juveniles were graded Tanner 1 or 2, 21 were Tanner 3 and 49 were Tanner 4 or 5. There were no cases of iatrogenic physeal injury or leg length discrepancy on long leg radiographs at 2 years, despite a median increase in height of 8 cm. Twelve patients had an ACL graft rupture and 9 had a contralateral ACL injury. Of those without further ACL injury, 82% returned to competitive sports, IKDC ligament evaluation was normal in 52% and nearly normal in 48%. The median side to side difference on manual maximum testing with the KT1000 was 2 mm (range − 1 to 5). A radiographic PTS of 12° or more was observed in 49%. Conclusions ACL reconstruction in the juvenile with living parental hamstring tendon allograft is a viable procedure associated with excellent clinical stability, patient-reported outcomes and return to sport over 2 years. Further ACL injury to the reconstructed and the contralateral knee remains a significant risk, with identical prevalence observed between the reconstructed and contralateral ACL between 12 and 24 months after surgery. Level of evidence III (Cohort Study).
METHODS:Purpose The purpose of the study was to investigate the biomechanics of walking and of the knee joint in the acute phase of ACL injury. Methods We examined 18 patients with acute ACL injuries and 20 healthy adults as controls. The biomechanics of the knee joint and of walking was assessed by 5 inertial sensors fixed with special cuffs to the lower back, the lower third of the thigh, and the lower third of the shank of the right and left legs. The movements and temporal characteristics were recorded while the subject was walking 10 m at a comfortable pace. Based on the results of examination, the patients were divided into two groups: with severe function impairment (6 patients) and with moderate function impairment (12 patients). Results It was found that in the first days post-trauma, not only the knee function was reduced, but the function of the entire lower limb as well. This led to a functional asymmetry. The kinematics of movements in the joints changed in accordance with slower walking. The walking became not only slower, but it was also associated with a decreased impact load in the weight acceptance phase. At later dates, the functional impairments were less pronounced. The total range of flexion motion did not exceed 20 degrees in the first group and 55 degrees in the second one. The injured joint developed functional immobilization within the first days post-injury. This was a guarding response by additional muscle strain to prevent unusual and limit physiological movements in the knee joint. The movements in the knee joint while walking were of small amplitude, rocking, and occurred only under load. The amplitude of the main flexion in the swing phase was reduced. Conclusion The stage of an ACL injury should be assessed not only based on the time post-trauma, but also taking account of the functional parameter—the knee range of flexion while walking. According to our findings, the only factor that had influenced the functional condition of the KJ was the duration of joint immobilization after trauma.
METHODS:Purpose Numerous techniques have been described for the tibial-sided graft preparation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The use of less suture material for graft preparation is thought to improve ingrowth and to reduce the risk for infection. At the same time, the suture construct should be strong enough to resist the surgeon’s pull during tensioning of the transplant. Methods In total, 39 fresh-frozen procine deep flexor tendons were used and prepared as four-strand grafts. In the three-suture group ( n = 19), graft preparation was performed using three tibial-sided sutures, with each tendon end sutured separately. In the one-suture group ( n = 20), a modified graft preparation using only one tibial-sided suture was applied. Each sample underwent load-to-failure testing ( N _max) after cyclic pre-loading. To estimate intraoperative tension forces acting on the tibial-sided suture constructs, the maximal tension force of 26 volunteers on such a construct was measured using a load cell. Results The biomechanical testing of the two different suture constructs showed a significantly higher load-to-failure for the three-suture group (711 N ± 91 N) compared to the one-suture group (347 N ± 24 N) ( p = 0.0001). In both groups, the mode of failure was a tear of the suture in all samples. A failure of the suture–tendon interface was not observed in any case. The median maximal tension force on the construct applied by the 26 volunteers was 134 N (range 73–182 N). Conclusion The presented single-suture tendon graft preparation resisted to smaller failure loads than the conventional three-suture technique. However, no failures in the suture–tendon interface were seen and the failure loads observed were far beyond the tension forces that can be expected intraoperatively. Hence, the single-suture graft preparation technique may be a valuable alternative to the conventional technique.