- 作者列表："Eralp EE","Gokdemir Y","Atag E","Ikizoglu NB","Ergenekon P","Yegit CY","Kut A","Ersu R","Karakoc F","Karadag B
BACKGROUND:The prevalence of non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis is increasing in both developed and developing countries in recent years. Although the main features remain similar, etiologies seem to change. Our aim was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory characteristics of our recent non-CF bronchiectasis patients and to compare these with our historical cohort in 2001. METHODS:One hundred four children with non-CF bronchiectasis followed between 2002 and 2019 were enrolled. Age of diagnosis, underlying etiology and microorganisms in sputum culture were recorded. Clinical outcomes were evaluated in terms of lung function tests and annual pulmonary exacerbation rates at presentation and within the last 12 months. RESULTS:Mean FEV1 and FVC %predicted at presentation improved compared to historical cohort (76.6 ± 17.1 vs. 63.3 ± 22.1 and 76.6 ± 15.1 vs. 67.3 ± 23.1, respectively; p < 0.001). There was a significant decrease in pulmonary exacerbation rate from 6.05 ± 2.88 at presentation to 3.23 ± 2.08 during follow-up (p < 0.0001). In 80.8% of patients, an underlying etiology was identified. There was an increase in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) (32.7% vs. 6.3%; p = 0.001), decrease in idiopathic cases (19.2% vs. 37.8%; p = 0.03) with no change in postinfectious and immunodeficiencies as underlying etiology. Sputum cultures were positive in 77.9% of patients which was 46.9% in the historical cohort (p = 0.001). CONCLUSION:Baseline pulmonary function tests were better and distribution of underlying etiology had changed with a remarkable increase in diagnosis of PCD in the recent cohort.
背景: 非囊性纤维化 (CF) 支气管扩张症的患病率近年来在发达国家和发展中国家都在增加。虽然主要特征保持相似，但病因似乎发生了变化。我们的目的是评估我们最近非 CF 支气管扩张症患者的临床和实验室特征，并将其与我们 2001 年的历史队列进行比较。 方法: 入选 2002 年至 2019 年间随访的非 CF 支气管扩张症患儿 104 例。记录诊断年龄、潜在病因和痰培养中的微生物。根据肺功能检查和就诊时和过去 12 个月内的年肺加重率评价临床结局。 结果: 与历史队列相比，就诊时平均 FEV1 和 FVC % 预测改善 (76.6 ± 17.1 vs. 63.3 ± 22.1 和 76.6 ± 15.1 vs.分别为 67.3 ± 23.1; P <0.001)。在随访期间，肺部恶化率显著降低，从就诊时的 6.05 ± 2.88 降至 3.23 ± 2.08 (p <0.0001)。在 80.8% 的患者中，确定了潜在的病因。原发性纤毛运动障碍 (PCD) 增加 (32.7% vs. 6.3%; P = 0.001)，特发性病例减少 (19.2% vs. 37.8%; P = 0.03)，感染后和免疫缺陷作为潜在病因无变化。77.9% 的患者痰培养阳性，在历史队列中为 46.9% (p = 0.001)。 结论: 在最近的队列中，随着 PCD 诊断的显著增加，基线肺功能检查较好，基础病因分布发生了变化。
METHODS:Background Dye localization is a useful method for the resection of unidentifiable small pulmonary lesions. This study compares the transbronchial route with augmented fluoroscopic bronchoscopy (AFB) and conventional transthoracic CT-guided methods for preoperative dye localization in thoracoscopic surgery. Methods Between April 2015 and March 2019, a total of 231 patients with small pulmonary lesions who received preoperative dye localization via AFB or percutaneous CT-guided technique were enrolled in the study. A propensity-matched analysis, incorporating preoperative variables, was used to compare localization and surgical outcomes between the two groups. Results After matching, a total of 90 patients in the AFB group ( N = 30) and CT-guided group ( N = 60) were selected for analysis. No significant difference was noted in the demographic data between both the groups. Dye localization was successfully performed in 29 patients (96.7%) and 57 patients (95%) with AFB and CT-guided method, respectively. The localization duration (24.1 ± 8.3 vs. 21.4 ± 12.5 min, p = 0.297) and equivalent dose of radiation exposure (3.1 ± 1.5 vs. 2.5 ± 2.0 mSv, p = 0.130) were comparable in both the groups. No major procedure-related complications occurred in either group; however, a higher rate of pneumothorax (0 vs. 16.7%, p = 0.029) and focal intrapulmonary hemorrhage (3.3 vs. 26.7%, p = 0.008) was noted in the CT-guided group. Conclusion AFB dye marking is an effective alternative for the preoperative localization of small pulmonary lesions, with a lower risk of procedure-related complications than the conventional CT-guided method.
METHODS:Background The use of artificial intelligence, including machine learning, is increasing in medicine. Use of machine learning is rising in the prediction of patient outcomes. Machine learning may also be able to enhance and augment anesthesia clinical procedures such as airway management. In this study, we sought to develop a machine learning algorithm that could classify vocal cords and tracheal airway anatomy real-time during video laryngoscopy or bronchoscopy as well as compare the performance of three novel convolutional networks for detecting vocal cords and tracheal rings. Methods Following institutional approval, a clinical dataset of 775 video laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy videos was used. The dataset was divided into two categories for use for training and testing. We used three convolutional neural networks (CNNs): ResNet, Inception and MobileNet. Backpropagation and a mean squared error loss function were used to assess accuracy as well as minimize bias and variance. Following training, we assessed transferability using the generalization error of the CNN, sensitivity and specificity, average confidence error, outliers, overall confidence percentage, and frames per second for live video feeds. After the training was complete, 22 models using 0 to 25,000 steps were generated and compared. Results The overall confidence of classification for the vocal cords and tracheal rings for ResNet, Inception and MobileNet CNNs were as follows: 0.84, 0.78, and 0.64 for vocal cords, respectively, and 0.69, 0.72, 0.54 for tracheal rings, respectively. Transfer learning following additional training resulted in improved accuracy of ResNet and Inception for identifying the vocal cords (with a confidence of 0.96 and 0.93 respectively). The two best performing CNNs, ResNet and Inception, achieved a specificity of 0.985 and 0.971, respectively, and a sensitivity of 0.865 and 0.892, respectively. Inception was able to process the live video feeds at 10 FPS while ResNet processed at 5 FPS. Both were able to pass a feasibility test of identifying vocal cords and tracheal rings in a video feed. Conclusions We report the development and evaluation of a CNN that can identify and classify airway anatomy in real time. This neural network demonstrates high performance. The availability of artificial intelligence may improve airway management and bronchoscopy by helping to identify key anatomy real time. Thus, potentially improving performance and outcomes during these procedures. Further, this technology may theoretically be extended to the settings of airway pathology or airway management in the hands of experienced providers. The researchers in this study are exploring the performance of this neural network in clinical trials.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The optimal mode of delivering topical anesthesia during flexible bronchoscopy remains unknown. This article compares the efficacy and safety of nebulized lignocaine, lignocaine oropharyngeal spray, or their combination. METHODS:Consecutive subjects were randomized 1:1:1 to receive nebulized lignocaine (2.5 mL of 4% solution, group A), oropharyngeal spray (10 actuations of 10% lignocaine, group B), or nebulization (2.5 mL, 4% lignocaine) and two actuations of 10% lignocaine spray (group C). The primary outcome was the subject-rated severity of cough according to a visual analog scale. The secondary outcomes included bronchoscopist-rated severity of cough and overall procedural satisfaction on a visual analog scale, total lignocaine dose, subject's willingness to undergo a repeat procedure, adverse reactions to lignocaine, and others. RESULTS:A total of 1,050 subjects (median age, 51 years; 64.8% men) were included. The median (interquartile range) score for subject-rated cough severity was significantly lower in group B compared to group C or group A (4 [1-10] vs 11 [4-24] vs 13 [5-30], respectively; P < .001). The bronchoscopist-rated severity of cough was also the least (P < .001), and the overall satisfaction was highest in group B (P < .001). The cumulative lignocaine dose administered was the least in group B (P < .001). A significantly higher proportion of subjects (P < .001) were willing to undergo a repeat bronchoscopy in group B (73.7%) than in groups A (49.1%) and C (59.4%). No lignocaine-related adverse events were observed. CONCLUSIONS:Ten actuations of 10% lignocaine oropharyngeal spray were superior to nebulized lignocaine or their combination for topical anesthesia during diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy. TRIAL REGISTRY:ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT03109392; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.