- 作者列表："Stabile G","Mangino FP","Romano F","Zinicola G","Ricci G
:Background and objectives: Cervical pregnancy (CP) is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy (EP) in which the embryo implants and grows inside the endocervical canal. Early diagnosis is essential in order to allow conservative medical and surgical treatments. Although many treatment approaches are disponible, the most effective is still unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of hysteroscopic management in early CP in order to preserve future fertility. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective observational case series. Five patients with a diagnosis of CP, hemodynamically stables and managed conservatively between 2014 and 2019 at the Institute of Child and Maternal Health Burlo Garofolo in Trieste, Italy, were included. Four patients, with βhCG levels >5000 mUi/mL were managed by hysteroscopy, with or without a previous systemic Methotrexate (MTX). One case with βhCG levels <5000 mUi/mL was treated using MTX combined to Mifepristone and Misoprostol. Results: In one patient treated by hysteroscopy alone it occurred a profuse vaginal bleeding with necessity for blood transfusion. Haemorrhage was controlled by a second hysteroscopic procedure. No complications, such as vaginal bleeding, were recorded in the other cases. Serum β-hCG levels become undetectable in a range of 15-40 days after hysteroscopic management; after medical treatment it become undetectable after 35 days. Serum βhCG levels had a faster drop the day after hysteroscopy than post medical management. The onset of a spontaneous pregnancy at the normal implantation site occurred after five months in one case treated by hysteroscopy. Conclusions: Many therapeutic approaches are effective for CP treatment. Hysteroscopy, alone or in combination with MTX, may provide a greater effect on the descent of βhCG, leading to a reduction of the hospitalization stay, decreasing costs and period for attempt pregnancy. Further prospective studies on larger samples are needed to define therapeutic protocols for CP management.
背景和目的: 宫颈妊娠 (CP) 是一种罕见的异位妊娠 (EP)，胚胎植入并在宫颈管内生长。早期诊断是必要的，以便保守医疗和手术治疗。尽管许多治疗方法是不可避免的，但最有效的仍不清楚。本研究的目的是评估宫腔镜治疗早期 CP 的疗效，以保留未来的生育能力。材料和方法: 这是一个回顾性观察病例系列。纳入了意大利的里雅斯特儿童和孕产妇健康研究所 Burlo Garofolo 的 5 例诊断为 CP 、血流动力学稳定且在 2014 年至 2019 年间保守治疗的患者。4 例 β hcg 水平> 5000 mUi/mL 的患者接受宫腔镜检查，术前或术后均未接受全身甲氨蝶呤 (MTX) 治疗。1 例 β hcg <5000 mUi/mL 者，采用 MTX 联合米非司酮及米索前列醇治疗。结果: 单用宫腔镜检查 1 例，阴道出血多，需输血。出血通过第二次宫腔镜手术得到控制。其他病例均未发生阴道出血等并发症。宫腔镜治疗后 15-40 天范围内血清 β-hCG 水平检测不到; 药物治疗后 35 天后检测不到。血清 β hcg 水平在宫腔镜检查后一天比医疗管理后下降更快。1 例宫腔镜治疗后 5 个月出现正常着床部位自然妊娠。结论: 许多治疗方法对 CP 是有效的。宫腔镜检查，单独或联合 MTX，可能对 β hcg 的下降产生更大的影响，导致住院时间的减少，减少费用和尝试怀孕的时间。需要对更大样本进行进一步的前瞻性研究，以确定 CP 管理的治疗方案。
METHODS::Maternal lifestyle affects both mother health and pregnancy outcome in humans. Several studies have demonstrated that interventions oriented towards reducing stress and anxiety have positive effects on pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, excessive gestational weight, gestational diabetes and preterm birth. In this work, we showed that the environmental enrichment (EE), defined as a noninvasive and biological significant stimulus of the sensory pathway combined with voluntary physical activity, prevented preterm birth (PTB) rate in a 41% in an inflammatory mouse model induced by the systemic administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, we found that EE modulates maternal metabolism and produces an anti-inflammatory environment that contributes to pregnancy maintenance. In pregnant mice uterus, EE reduces the expression of TLR4 and CD14 (the LPS receptor and its coactivator protein), preventing the LPS-induced increase in PGE2 and PGF2α release and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. In cervical tissue, EE inhibits cervical ripening events, such as PGE2 release, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 increased activity and neutrophil recruitment, therefore conserving cervical function. It seems that EE exposure could mimic the stress and anxiety-reducing techniques mentioned above, explaining, at least partially, the beneficial effects of having a healthy lifestyle before and during gestation. Furthermore, we propose that designing an EE protocol for humans could be a noninvasive and preventive therapy for pregnancy complications, averting pre-term birth occurrence and dreaded sequelae that are present in the offspring born to soon.
METHODS:PROBLEM:We aimed to investigate the main causes of recurrent miscarriage (RM) in patients with losses after spontaneous gestation (SG) and after in vitro fertilization (IVF). METHOD OF STUDY:A prospective case-control study was conducted. The eligible patients were women who had experienced two or more consecutive abortions after less than 12 weeks gestation, two consecutive losses after SG or two consecutive losses after IVF. All patients were subjected to the following evaluations: karyotyping of the aborted material, alloimmune and autoimmune marker testing, and acquired and hereditary thrombophilia marker testing. RESULTS:In total, 58 patients were eligible: 32 patients with RM after SG and 26 patients with RM after IVF. The factors associated with RM were genetic (29%), immune (14%), thrombophilic (21%), and thrombophilic and immune (24%), and only 12% of the cases were idiopathic. Comparing the two study groups (SG and IVF), all studied factors were similar, except for a higher ANA positivity observed in the SG group (SG 30.4% versus IVF 5.3%, OR 8.6 (CI 1.1 - 21.1, P 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Our study identified the possibly factors associated with recurrent miscarriage in 86% of the cases, and these factors appear to be similar in patients with recurrent miscarriage after spontaneous gestation and IVF. This study demonstrates that IVF with PGT-A with euploid embryo transfer could reduce abortions by up to 29%, but other factors needs to be investigated even in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization.
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the impact of pre-operative Music Therapy (MT) on pain in first-trimester abortion under local anaesthesia (ALA). DESIGN:Randomised controlled trial comparing patients undergoing a first-trimester ALA with or without a pre-operative MT session. SETTING:University hospital of Angers from November 2016 to August 2017. POPULATION:Patients who underwent first-trimester abortion under ALA. METHODS:Patients allocated to MT group underwent a pre-operative 20 minutes session of MT. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) just before the procedure, during the procedure, at the end of the procedure and upon returning to the ward. RESULTS:159 patients were randomised (80 in MT group, and 79 in the control group). 2 patients were excluded from the control group and 6 from the MT group. Therefore, 77 patients were analysed in the control group and 74 in the MT group. The intensity of pain were similar in both the MT group and the Control group just before the procedure (VAS: 4.0±2.9 vs. 3.6±2.5, p=0.78), during the procedure (VAS: 5.3±2.5 vs. 4.9±2.9, p=0.78), at the end of the procedure (VAS: 2.7±2.4 vs. 2.6±2.4, p=0.43) and upon returning to the ward (VAS:1.8±2.0 vs. 1.5±2.0, p=0.84). The difference in pain between entering the department and returning to the room after the procedure was similar between the MT and Control groups (0.3±2.5 vs. 0.3±2.4 VAS levels difference; p=0.92). CONCLUSION:Music therapy session before an ALA procedure resulted in no improvement in patient perception of pain during a first-trimester abortion.