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Comparisons of Dipstick Test, Urine Protein-to-Creatine Ratio, and Total Protein Measurement for the Diagnosis of Preeclampsia.


  • 影响因子:2.81
  • DOI:10.3390/ijerph17124195
  • 作者列表:"Stefańska K","Zieliński M","Zamkowska D","Adamski P","Jassem-Bobowicz J","Piekarska K","Jankowiak M","Leszczyńska K","Świątkowska-Stodulska R","Preis K","Trzonkowski P","Marek-Trzonkowska N
  • 发表时间:2020-06-12

:Preeclampsia affects 2-5% of pregnant women and is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. We aimed to extensively evaluate proteinuria in women with preeclampsia and to determine the analytical sensitivity and specificity of and the cutoff values for urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPCR) and total protein in 24 h urine samples. This study included 88 women. We used the urine dipstick test, UPCR, and total protein measurement in a 24 h urine sample. The patients were divided in gestational hypertension (GH, n = 44) and preeclampsia (PE, n = 44) groups. In the GH group, 25% (11/44) of the patients presented incidentally positive results. UPCR and total protein in 24 h urine specimens were increased in the GH group compared to the PE group. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed a UPCR cutoff of 30 mg/mmol as significant for preeclampsia, while the sensitivity and specificity were 89% (95% CI, 75-97) and 100% (95% CI, 87-100), respectively. In the 24 h urine protein test, sensitivity and specificity were 80% (95% CI, 61-92) and 100% (95% CI, 88-100), respectively, for the cutoff value of 0.26 g/24 h. In comparison to the other commonly used tests here considered, UPCR determination is a reliable, relatively faster, and equally accurate method for the quantitation of proteinuria, correlates well with 24 h urine protein estimations, and could be used as an alternative to the 24 h proteinuria test for the diagnosis of preeclampsia.


: 子痫前期影响 2-5% 的孕妇,是孕产妇和围产儿发病率和死亡率的主要原因之一。我们旨在广泛评估子痫前期妇女的蛋白尿,并确定尿蛋白与肌酐比值 (UPCR) 的分析敏感性和特异性及临界值和 24 h 尿标本的总蛋白。这项研究包括 88 名女性。我们在 24 h 尿液样本中使用了尿试纸试验、 UPCR 和总蛋白测量。将患者分为妊娠期高血压 (GH,n = 44) 和子痫前期 (PE,n = 44) 两组。在 GH 组中,25% (11/44) 的患者偶然出现阳性结果。与 PE 组相比,GH 组 24 h 尿标本中的 UPCR 和总蛋白增加。受试者工作特征分析显示,子痫前期的 UPCR 截断值为 30 mg/mmol 显著,而敏感性和特异性分别为 89% (95% CI,75-97) 和 100% (95% CI, 87-100),分别。在 24 h 尿蛋白检测中,敏感性和特异性分别为 80% (95% CI,61-92) 和 100% (95% CI,88-100),对于 0.26g/24 h 的截断值。与这里考虑的其他常用测试相比,UPCR 测定是可靠的、相对较快的,同样准确的蛋白尿定量方法与 24 h 尿蛋白定量有良好的相关性,可作为 24 h 蛋白尿试验诊断子痫前期的替代方法。



作者列表:["Schander J","Aisemberg J","Correa FG","Wolfson ML","Juriol L","Cymeryng C","Jensen F","Franchi AM"]

METHODS::Maternal lifestyle affects both mother health and pregnancy outcome in humans. Several studies have demonstrated that interventions oriented towards reducing stress and anxiety have positive effects on pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, excessive gestational weight, gestational diabetes and preterm birth. In this work, we showed that the environmental enrichment (EE), defined as a noninvasive and biological significant stimulus of the sensory pathway combined with voluntary physical activity, prevented preterm birth (PTB) rate in a 41% in an inflammatory mouse model induced by the systemic administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, we found that EE modulates maternal metabolism and produces an anti-inflammatory environment that contributes to pregnancy maintenance. In pregnant mice uterus, EE reduces the expression of TLR4 and CD14 (the LPS receptor and its coactivator protein), preventing the LPS-induced increase in PGE2 and PGF2α release and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. In cervical tissue, EE inhibits cervical ripening events, such as PGE2 release, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 increased activity and neutrophil recruitment, therefore conserving cervical function. It seems that EE exposure could mimic the stress and anxiety-reducing techniques mentioned above, explaining, at least partially, the beneficial effects of having a healthy lifestyle before and during gestation. Furthermore, we propose that designing an EE protocol for humans could be a noninvasive and preventive therapy for pregnancy complications, averting pre-term birth occurrence and dreaded sequelae that are present in the offspring born to soon.

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作者列表:["Bilibio JP","Belém Gama T","Nascimento I","José Conceição Meireles A","Aguiar A","do Nascimento FC","Lorenzzoni PL"]

METHODS:PROBLEM:We aimed to investigate the main causes of recurrent miscarriage (RM) in patients with losses after spontaneous gestation (SG) and after in vitro fertilization (IVF). METHOD OF STUDY:A prospective case-control study was conducted. The eligible patients were women who had experienced two or more consecutive abortions after less than 12 weeks gestation, two consecutive losses after SG or two consecutive losses after IVF. All patients were subjected to the following evaluations: karyotyping of the aborted material, alloimmune and autoimmune marker testing, and acquired and hereditary thrombophilia marker testing. RESULTS:In total, 58 patients were eligible: 32 patients with RM after SG and 26 patients with RM after IVF. The factors associated with RM were genetic (29%), immune (14%), thrombophilic (21%), and thrombophilic and immune (24%), and only 12% of the cases were idiopathic. Comparing the two study groups (SG and IVF), all studied factors were similar, except for a higher ANA positivity observed in the SG group (SG 30.4% versus IVF 5.3%, OR 8.6 (CI 1.1 - 21.1, P 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Our study identified the possibly factors associated with recurrent miscarriage in 86% of the cases, and these factors appear to be similar in patients with recurrent miscarriage after spontaneous gestation and IVF. This study demonstrates that IVF with PGT-A with euploid embryo transfer could reduce abortions by up to 29%, but other factors needs to be investigated even in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization.

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作者列表:["Belloeil V","Tessier Cazeneuve C","Leclercq A","Mercier MB","Legendre G","Corroenne R"]

METHODS:OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the impact of pre-operative Music Therapy (MT) on pain in first-trimester abortion under local anaesthesia (ALA). DESIGN:Randomised controlled trial comparing patients undergoing a first-trimester ALA with or without a pre-operative MT session. SETTING:University hospital of Angers from November 2016 to August 2017. POPULATION:Patients who underwent first-trimester abortion under ALA. METHODS:Patients allocated to MT group underwent a pre-operative 20 minutes session of MT. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) just before the procedure, during the procedure, at the end of the procedure and upon returning to the ward. RESULTS:159 patients were randomised (80 in MT group, and 79 in the control group). 2 patients were excluded from the control group and 6 from the MT group. Therefore, 77 patients were analysed in the control group and 74 in the MT group. The intensity of pain were similar in both the MT group and the Control group just before the procedure (VAS: 4.0±2.9 vs. 3.6±2.5, p=0.78), during the procedure (VAS: 5.3±2.5 vs. 4.9±2.9, p=0.78), at the end of the procedure (VAS: 2.7±2.4 vs. 2.6±2.4, p=0.43) and upon returning to the ward (VAS:1.8±2.0 vs. 1.5±2.0, p=0.84). The difference in pain between entering the department and returning to the room after the procedure was similar between the MT and Control groups (0.3±2.5 vs. 0.3±2.4 VAS levels difference; p=0.92). CONCLUSION:Music therapy session before an ALA procedure resulted in no improvement in patient perception of pain during a first-trimester abortion.

关键词: 流产 焦虑 音乐 疼痛
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