- 作者列表："Yılmaz, Songül","Özlü, Sare Gülfem","Kurt, Ayşegül Neşe Çıtak
Background Although there are data showing that the frequency of hypertension increases in adults with migraine, there has been no study on this subject in children. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the presence of hypertension in children with migraine by performing ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Methods Thirty-seven children diagnosed with migraine and 30 healthy controls were evaluated between January 2015 and March 2016. Demographic data, clinical and laboratory features, and physical examination findings were recorded for both groups. Office blood pressure was measured for all children, and each also underwent ABPM. The two groups were compared in terms of ambulatory blood pressure parameters. Results The mean age was 13.3 and 13.1 years and the proportion of females was 73% and 60% in the migraine and control groups, respectively. Although the frequency of hypertension was not higher, abnormal ABPM patterns were found to be significantly more frequent in the migraine group (migraine, 45.9%; control, 16.7%; p , 0.018). Nighttime mean arterial blood pressure, nighttime diastolic blood pressure, and non-dipping pattern were higher in children with migraine than those in the control group ( p < 0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that ambulatory blood pressure abnormalities may be present in almost half of patients with migraine. Therefore, we suggest that ABPM should be performed even if the office blood pressure measurements of children diagnosed with migraine are normal.
背景虽然有数据显示成人偏头痛患者高血压的频率增加，但尚未有关于这一主题在儿童中的研究。在这项研究中，我们旨在通过进行动态血压监测 (ABPM) 来评估偏头痛患儿是否存在高血压。方法对 2015 年 1 月至 2016 年 3 月确诊为偏头痛的 37 例儿童和 30 名健康对照者进行评价。记录两组的人口统计学数据、临床和实验室特征以及体格检查结果。测量所有儿童的办公室血压，每个儿童也接受了 ABPM。比较两组患者的动态血压参数。结果偏头痛组和对照组的平均年龄分别为 13.3 岁和 13.1 岁，女性比例分别为 73% 和 60%。虽然高血压的频率并不高，但发现异常 ABPM 模式在偏头痛组中明显更频繁 (偏头痛，45.9%; 对照，16.7%; p，0.018)。偏头痛患儿夜间平均动脉压、夜间舒张压、非浸渍型均高于对照组 (p <0.05)。结论这些结果表明，几乎一半的偏头痛患者可能存在动态血压异常。因此，我们建议即使诊断为偏头痛的儿童的办公室血压测量正常，也应进行 ABPM。
METHODS::Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder with clinical symptoms of neuroinflammation and demyelination in the central nervous system. Recently, herbal medicines are clinically effective against MS as the current disease-modifying drugs have limited effectiveness. Hence, the present study evaluated the therapeutic potential of Ocimum basilicum essential oil (OB) in ethidium bromide (EB)-induced cognitive deficits in the male rats. Further, the effect of OB (50, 100 and 200 μL/kg) was evaluated on EB-induced neuroinflammation, astrogliosis and mitochondrial dysfunction in the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) of the animals. The EB was injected through bilateral intracerebroventricular route into hippocampus to induce MS-like manifestations in the rats. OB (100 and 200 μL/kg) and Ursolic acid (UA) significantly reduced the EB-induced cognitive deficits in Morris water maze and Y-maze test paradigms. OB (100 and 200 μL/kg) and UA significantly attenuated the EB-induced neuroinflammation in terms of increase in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-6) in the rat PFC. Further, OB (100 and 200 μL/kg) and UA significantly attenuated the EB-induced astrogliosis in terms of increase in the levels of GFAP (Glial fibrillary acidic protein) and Iba-1 (Ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1) in the rat PFC. In addition, OB (100 and 200 μL/kg) and UA significantly attenuated the EB-induced decrease in the mitochondrial function, integrity, respiratory control rate and ADP/O in the PFC of the rodents. Moreover, OB (100 and 200 μL/kg) and UA significantly reduced the EB-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in the PFC of the rat. Hence, it can be presumed that OB could be a potential alternative drug candidate in the pharmacotherapy of MS.
METHODS::Sleep fragmentation is an increase in sleep-wake transitions without an overall decrease in total sleep time. Sleep fragmentation is well documented during acute and chronic hospitalization and can result in delirium and memory problems in children. Sleep fragmentation is also often noted in neurodevelopmental disorders. However, it is unclear how sleep fragmentation independent of disease affects brain development and function. We hypothesized that acute sleep fragmentation during the neonatal period in otherwise healthy animals would result in neuroinflammation and would be associated with abnormalities in cognitive development. The orbital shaker method was used to fragment sleep for 72 h in postnatal day 3 New Zealand white rabbit kits (fragmentation group). To control for maternal separation, the sham group was separated from the dam and maintained in the same conditions without undergoing sleep fragmentation. A naïve control group remained with the dam. Kits underwent behavioral testing with novel object recognition and spontaneous alternation T-maze tests at 2-3 weeks post-fragmentation and were sacrificed 3-50 days after fragmentation. Sleep fragmentation resulted in acute and chronic changes in microglial morphology in the hippocampus and cortex, and regional differences in mRNA expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines at 3, 7 and 50 days post-fragmentation. Impaired novel object recognition and a longer latency in T-maze task completion were noted in the fragmented kits. This was in spite of normalization of sleep architecture noted at 2 months of age in these kits. The results indicate that transient neonatal sleep fragmentation results in short-term and long-term immune alterations in the brain, along with diminished performance in cognitive tasks long-term.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) is a recently approved therapy for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. To date, there is a poor understanding of the mechanism of action and lack of in vivo biomarkers. We propose a method for investigating the in vivo stimulation effects using blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) MRI and present the brain activation pattern associated with ANT DBS. METHODS:Two patients undergoing ANT DBS for epilepsy underwent BOLD MRI using a block design after the DBS was programmed to alternate ON/OFF in 30 second blocks. The scanner was triggered utilizing surface electrophysiological recording to detect the DBS cycle. Nine total runs were obtained and were analyzed using a general linear model. RESULTS:Active ANT stimulation produced activation within several areas of the brain, including the thalamus, bilateral anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, ventral tegmental area, hippocampus, striatum, and right angular gyrus. CONCLUSIONS:Utilizing block-design BOLD MRI, we were able to show widespread activation resulting from ANT DBS. Overlap with multiple areas of both the default mode and limbic networks was shown suggesting that these nodes may modulate the effect of seizure control with ANT DBS.