- 作者列表："Murase M","Tamura R","Kuranari Y","Sato M","Ohara K","Morimoto Y","Yoshida K","Toda M
AIMS:Histological invasion into the adjacent brain parenchyma is frequently investigated in meningioma because it is an important morphological criterion for grade II meningioma according to the 2016 WHO classification. However, few studies have focused on dural invasion of meningiomas. Herein, we propose a novel histopathological classification based on dural invasion of meningiomas. METHODS:Forty-nine cases with WHO grade I meningiomas who underwent Simpson grade I removal were collected. After the meningeal layer (ML) and periosteal layer (PL) of dura mater were visualised by Masson's trichrome stain, we evaluated the depth (to the ML and PL) and the patterns (1, expanding; 2, infiltrating) of dural invasion of meningiomas using serial paraffin sections. Invasion-associated markers, including Ki-67, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-9 and MMP-13, aquaporin 1 and Na-K-2Cl cotransporter, were quantitatively analysed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:Thirty-five cases (71.4%) showed the dural invasion. In 27 of these 35 cases (77.1%), dural invasion was localised in ML. Type 1 (expanding type) and type 2 (infiltrating type) invasions were observed in 23 and 12 cases, respectively. The recurrence rate in cases with type 2 invasion was significantly higher than that in cases with type 1 invasion. The percentage of MMP-1-positive tumour cells was also significantly higher in cases with dural invasion than those without, suggesting involvement of MMP-1 in dural invasion. CONCLUSIONS:We quantitatively evaluated the depth and patterns of dural invasion in meningiomas. The patterns of dural invasion were associated with meningioma recurrence.
目的: 根据 2016 WHO 分类，脑膜瘤的组织学侵犯邻近脑实质是脑膜瘤的重要形态学标准。然而，很少有研究关注脑膜瘤的硬脑膜侵犯。在此，我们提出了一种新的基于脑膜瘤硬膜侵袭的组织病理学分类。 方法: 收集 49 例接受 Simpson ⅰ 级切除的 WHO ⅰ 级脑膜瘤。通过 Masson 三色染色观察硬脑膜的脑膜层 (ML) 和骨膜层 (PL) 后，我们评估了深度 (到 ML 和 PL) 和使用连续石蜡切片的脑膜瘤硬脑膜侵犯的模式 (1，扩大; 2，浸润)。通过免疫组织化学方法定量分析侵袭相关标志物，包括 Ki-67 、基质金属蛋白酶 (MMP)-1 、 MMP-9 和 MMP-13 、水通道蛋白 1 和 Na-K-2Cl 共转运蛋白。 结果: 35 例 (71.4%) 硬膜受侵。这 35 例中有 27 例 (77.1%) 硬膜侵犯局限于 ML。1 型 (扩大型) 和 2 型 (浸润型) 侵袭分别为 23 和 12 例。2 型浸润病例的复发率明显高于 1 型浸润病例。有硬脑膜浸润的病例 MMP-1-positive 肿瘤细胞比例也显著高于无硬脑膜浸润的病例，提示 MMP-1 参与硬脑膜浸润。 结论: 我们定量评价了脑膜瘤硬膜浸润的深度和模式。硬膜浸润方式与脑膜瘤复发有关。
METHODS:PURPOSE:To generate a preclinical model of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant gliomas from glioma patients and design a MRS method to test the compatibility of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) production between the preclinical model and patients. METHODS:Five patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mice were generated from two glioma patients with IDH1 R132H mutation. A PRESS sequence was tailored at 9.4 T, with computer simulation and phantom analyses, for improving 2HG detection in mice. 2HG and other metabolites in the PDX mice were measured using the optimized MRS at 9.4 T and compared with 3 T MRS measurements of the metabolites in the parental-tumor patients. Spectral fitting was performed with LCModel using in-house basis spectra. Metabolite levels were quantified with reference to water. RESULTS:The PRESS TE was optimized to be 96 ms, at which the 2HG 2.25 ppm signal was narrow and inverted, thereby leading to unequivocal separation of the 2HG resonance from adjacent signals from other metabolites. The optimized MRS provided precise detection of 2HG in mice compared to short-TE MRS at 9.4 T. The 2HG estimates in PDX mice were in excellent agreement with the 2HG measurements in the patients. CONCLUSION:The similarity of 2HG production between PDX models and parental-tumor patients indicates that PDX tumors retain the parental IDH metabolic fingerprint and can serve as a preclinical model for improving our understanding of the IDH-mutation associated metabolic reprogramming.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Gliomas consist of a heterogeneous group of tumors. This study aimed to report the incidences of O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation, 1p19q co-deletion, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene mutations, and inactivating mutations of alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) in high-grade gliomas in an ethnically diverse population. METHODS:Records of patients who underwent surgery for high-grade gliomas from January 2013 to March 2017 at our institution were obtained. The patients' age, gender, ethnicity, Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs), tumor location and biomarkers status were recorded. Data were analyzed using chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests, Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank test. RESULTS:181 patients were selected (56 with grade III gliomas, 125 with grade IV gliomas). In the grade III group, 55% had MGMT promoter methylation, 41% had 1p19q co-deletion, 35% had IDH1 mutation and none had ATRX loss. In the grade IV group, 30% had MGMT promoter methylation, 2% had 1p19q co-deletion, 15% had IDH1 mutation and 8% had ATRX loss. After adjusting for effects of age, surgery and pre-operative ADL statuses, only MGMT promoter methylation was found to be significantly associated with longer overall survival time in grade III (p = 0.024) and IV patients (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS:The incidences of MGMT promoter methylation and IDH1 mutation were found to be comparable to globally reported rates, but those of 1p19q co-deletion and ATRX loss seemed to be lower in our cohort. MGMT promoter methylation was associated with increased overall survival in our cohort and might serve as favorable prognostic factor.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Glioblastoma multiforme is a CNS cancer characterized by diffuse infiltrative growth, aggressive clinical behavior and very poor prognosis. The state-of-art clinical approach to this disease consists of surgical resection followed by radiotherapy plus concurrent and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide. Tumor recurrence occurs in virtually all cases, therefore, despite any treatment, the median survival is very low (14.6 months), which makes the approach to these patients a challenging clinical issue. MAIN BODY:The escalating costs and times required for new medications to reach the bedside make repurposing or repositioning of old drugs, when scientific bases allow their use in other pathologies, an appealing strategy. Here, we analyze a number of literature data concerning the antipsychotic chlorpromazine, the founder of the phenothiazines class of drugs, a medication widely used in the clinics for approximately 60 years. The drug exerts its effects on psychiatric patients by interfering with the dopamine receptor D2, although more recent pharmacodynamics studies ascribe chlorpromazine a series of biological effects on cancer cells, all converging in hindering also glioblastoma survival capabilities. SHORT CONCLUSIONS:On these bases, and assisted by the information on the well-established chlorpromazine toxicity and dosage in humans, we designed a Phase II clinical trial involving the combination of chlorpromazine with the standard treatment, temozolomide, in the adjuvant phase of the therapeutic protocol. Patients displaying hypo-methylation of the MGMT gene, and thus intrinsically resistant to temozolomide, will be enrolled. The endpoints of this study are the analysis of toxicity and clinical activity, as evaluated in terms of Progression-Free Survival, of the association of chlorpromazine with the first-line treatment for this very serious form of cancer.