Repeated exposure of naïve and peripheral nerve-injured mice to a snake as an experimental model of post-traumatic stress disorder and its co-morbidity with neuropathic pain.
- 作者列表："Mendes-Gomes J","Paschoalin-Maurin T","Donaldson LF","Lumb BM","Blanchard DC","Coimbra NC
:Confrontation of rodents by natural predators provides a number of advantages as a model for traumatic or stressful experience. Using this approach, one of the aims of this study was to investigate a model for the study of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related behaviour in mice. Moreover, because PTSD can facilitate the establishment of chronic pain (CP), and in the same way, patients with CP have an increased tendency to develop PTSD when exposed to a traumatic event, our second aim was to analyse whether this comorbidity can be verified in the new paradigm. C57BL/6 male mice underwent chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve (CCI), a model of neuropathic CP, or not (sham groups) and were submitted to different threatening situations. Threatened mice exhibited enhanced defensive behaviours, as well as significantly enhanced risk assessment and escape behaviours during context reexposure. Previous snake exposure reduced open-arm time in the elevated plus-maze test, suggesting an increase in anxiety levels. Sham mice showed fear-induced antinociception immediately after a second exposure to the snake, but 1 week later, they exhibited allodynia, suggesting that multiple exposures to the snake led to increased nociceptive responses. Moreover, after reexposure to the aversive environment, allodynia was maintained. CCI alone produced intense allodynia, which was unaltered by exposure to either the snake stimuli or reexposure to the experimental context. Together, these results specifically parallel the behavioural symptoms of PTSD, suggesting that the snake/exuvia/reexposure procedure may constitute a useful animal model to study PTSD.
: 天敌对啮齿动物的对抗作为创伤性或应激性经验的模型提供了许多优势。使用这种方法，本研究的目的之一是研究小鼠创伤后应激障碍 (PTSD) 相关行为的模型。此外，由于 PTSD 可以促进慢性疼痛 (CP) 的建立，并且以同样的方式，CP 患者在暴露于创伤性事件时发展 PTSD 的趋势增加,我们的第二个目的是分析这种共病是否可以在新的范式中得到验证。C57BL/6 雄性小鼠接受坐骨神经慢性缩窄性损伤 (CCI) (神经病理性 CP 模型)，或不接受 (假手术组)，并接受不同的威胁情况。受威胁的小鼠表现出增强的防御行为，以及在环境再暴露期间显著增强的风险评估和逃避行为。既往蛇暴露减少了高架加迷宫测试中的张开时间，提示焦虑水平增加。假小鼠在第二次暴露于蛇后立即表现出恐惧诱导的抗伤害感受，但 1 周后，它们表现出异常性疼痛，表明多次暴露于蛇导致伤害性反应增加。此外，在再次暴露于厌恶的环境后，异常性疼痛得以维持。CCI 单独产生强烈的异常性疼痛，暴露于蛇刺激或再暴露于实验环境中没有改变。总之，这些结果与 PTSD 的行为症状特别平行，表明 snake/exuvia/再暴露程序可能构成研究 PTSD 的有用动物模型。
METHODS::The adipocyte-derived hormone adiponectin has a broad spectrum of functions beyond metabolic control. We previously reported that adiponectin acts in the brain to regulate depression-related behaviors. However, its underlying neural substrates have not been identified. Here we show that adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) is expressed in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and colocalized with tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), a marker of serotonin (5-HT) neurons. Selective deletion of AdipoR1 in 5-HT neurons induced anhedonia in male mice, as indicated by reduced female urine sniffing time and saccharin preference, and behavioral despair in female mice and enhanced stress-induced decrease in sucrose preference in both sexes. The expression levels of TPH2 were downregulated with a concurrent reduction of 5-HT-immunoreactivity in the DRN and its two major projection regions, the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), in male but not female mice lacking AdipoR1 in 5-HT neurons. In addition, serotonin transporter (SERT) expression was upregulated in both DRN projection fields of male mice but only in the mPFC of female mice. These changes presumably lead to decreased 5-HT synthesis and/or increased 5-HT reuptake, thereby reducing 5-HT transmission. The augmented behavioral responses to the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine but not desipramine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, observed in conditional knockout male mice supports deficient 5-HT transmission underlying depression-related phenotypes. Our results indicate that adiponectin acts on 5-HT neurons through AdipoR1 receptors to regulate depression-related behaviors in a sex-dependent manner.
METHODS::Multiple schizophrenia (SCZ) risk loci may be involved in gene co-regulation mechanisms, and analysis of coexpressed gene networks may help to clarify SCZ molecular basis. We have previously identified a dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) coexpression module enriched for SCZ risk genes and associated with cognitive and neuroimaging phenotypes of SCZ, as well as with response to treatment with antipsychotics. Here we aimed to identify regulatory factors modulating this coexpression module and their relevance to SCZ. We performed motif enrichment analysis to identify transcription factor (TF) binding sites in human promoters of genes coexpressed with DRD2. Then, we measured transcript levels of a group of these genes in primary mouse cortical neurons in basal conditions and upon overexpression and knockdown of predicted TFs. Finally, we analyzed expression levels of these TFs in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of SCZ patients. Our in silico analysis revealed enrichment for NURR1 and ERR1 binding sites. In neuronal cultures, the expression of genes either relevant to SCZ risk (Drd2, Gatad2a, Slc28a1, Cnr1) or indexing coexpression in our module (Btg4, Chit1, Osr1, Gpld1) was significantly modified by gain and loss of Nurr1 and Err1. Postmortem DLPFC expression data analysis showed decreased expression levels of NURR1 and ERR1 in patients with SCZ. For NURR1 such decreased expression is associated with treatment with antipsychotics. Our results show that NURR1 and ERR1 modulate the transcription of DRD2 coexpression partners and support the hypothesis that NURR1 is involved in the response to SCZ treatment.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In the present study, we provide in silico and experimental evidence for a role of the TFs NURR1 and ERR1 in modulating the expression pattern of genes coexpressed with DRD2 in human DLPFC. Notably, genetic variations in these genes is associated with SCZ risk and behavioral and neuroimaging phenotypes of the disease, as well as with response to treatment. Furthermore, this study presents novel findings on a possible interplay between D2 receptor-mediated dopamine signaling involved in treatment with antipsychotics and the transcriptional regulation mechanisms exerted by NURR1. Our results suggest that coexpression and co-regulation mechanisms may help to explain some of the complex biology of genetic associations with SCZ.
METHODS::Abnormal neurotransmission is central to schizophrenia (SZ). Alterations across multiple neurotransmitter systems in SZ suggest that this illness may be associated with dysregulation of core intracellular processes such as signaling pathways that underlie the regulation and integration of these systems. The AKT-mTOR signaling cascade has been implicated in SZ by gene association, postmortem brain and animal studies. AKT and mTOR are serine/threonine kinases which play important roles in cell growth, proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Both AKT and mTOR require phosphorylation at specific sites for their complete activation. mTOR forms two functionally distinct multiprotein complexes, mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1) and Complex 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 mediates ribosome biogenesis, protein translation, and autophagy, whereas mTORC2 contributes to actin dynamics. Altered protein synthesis and actin dynamics can lead to an abnormal neuronal morphology resulting in deficits in learning and memory. Currently, there is a lack of direct evidence to support the hypothesis of disrupted mTOR signaling in SZ, and we have addressed this by characterizing this signaling pathway in SZ brain. We found a reduction in AKT and mTOR protein expression and/or phosphorylation state in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) from 22 pairs of SZ and matched comparison subjects. We also found reduced protein expression of GβL, a subunit protein common to both mTOR complexes. We further investigated mTOR complex-specific subunit composition and phosphorylation state, and found abnormal mTOR expression in both complexes in SZ DLPFC. These findings provide evidence that proteins associated with the AKT-mTOR signaling cascade are downregulated in SZ DLPFC.