Characterizing the BCG Induced Macrophage and Neutrophil Mechanisms for Defense Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis
描述 BCG 诱导的巨噬细胞和中性粒细胞防御结核分枝杆菌的机制
- 作者列表："Thomas E. Bickett","Jennifer McLean","Elizabeth Creissen","Linda Izzo","Cassidy Hagan","Antonio J. Izzo","Fabiola Silva Angulo","Angelo A. Izzo
The live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strain, Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG) is a potent innate immune stimulator. In the C57BL/6 mouse model of tuberculosis, BCG vaccination leads to a significant reduction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis burden after aerogenic infection. Our studies indicated that BCG induced protection against pulmonary tuberculosis was independent of T cells and present as early as 7 days after vaccination. This protection showed longevity, as it did not wane when conventional T cell and TNF-α deficient mice were infected 30 days post-vaccination. As BCG induced mycobacterial killing after 7 days, this study investigated the contributions of the innate immune system after BCG vaccination to better understand mechanisms required for mycobacterial killing. Subcutaneous BCG inoculation resulted in significant CD11b+F4/80+ monocyte subset recruitment into the lungs within 7 days. Further studies revealed that killing of mycobacteria was dependent on the viability of BCG, because irradiated BCG did not have the same effect. Although others have identified BCG as a facilitator of trained innate immunity, we found that BCG reduced the mycobacterial burden in the absence of mechanisms required for trained innate immunity, highlighting a role for macrophages and neutrophils for vaccine induced killing of M. tuberculosis.
牛分枝杆菌减毒活菌株卡介苗 (BCG) 是一种有效的先天免疫刺激剂。在 C57BL/6 小鼠结核病模型中，卡介苗接种导致产气感染后结核分枝杆菌负担显著降低。我们的研究表明，BCG 诱导的对肺结核的保护作用独立于 T 细胞，最早出现在疫苗接种后 7 天。这种保护作用显示出长寿，因为当常规 T 细胞和 TNF-α 缺陷小鼠在接种后 30 天感染时，它并没有减弱。由于 BCG 诱导 7 天后分枝杆菌杀死，本研究调查了 BCG 疫苗接种后先天免疫系统的贡献，以更好地了解分枝杆菌杀死所需的机制。皮下接种 BCG 在 7 天内导致显著的 CD11b + F4/80 + 单核细胞亚群募集到肺部。进一步的研究发现，杀死分枝杆菌依赖于 BCG 的活力，因为辐照 BCG 没有同样的效果。尽管其他人已经确定 BCG 是训练有素的先天免疫的促进者，但我们发现 BCG 在缺乏训练有素的先天免疫所需机制的情况下减轻了分枝杆菌负担,强调巨噬细胞和中性粒细胞对疫苗诱导的 M 的杀伤作用。肺结核。
METHODS:Novel interventions that do not rely on daily adherence to ART are needed to achieve sustained viral remission for perinatally infected children, who currently rely on lifelong ART. Considering the risks and expense associated with ART interruption trials, the identification of biomarkers of viral rebound will prioritize promising therapeutic intervention strategies, including anti-HIV Env protein therapeutics. However, comprehensive studies to identify those biomarkers are logistically challenging in human infants, demanding the need for relevant nonhuman primate models of HIV rebound. In this study, we developed an infant RM model of oral infection with simian-human immunodeficiency virus expressing clade C HIV Env and short-term ART followed by ATI, longitudinally characterizing the immune responses to viral infection during ART and after ATI. Additionally, we compared this infant RM model to an analogous adult RM rebound model and identified virologic and immunologic correlates of the time to viral rebound after ATI.To achieve long-term viral remission in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children, novel strategies beyond early antiretroviral therapy (ART) will be necessary. Identifying clinical predictors of the time to viral rebound upon ART interruption will streamline the development of novel therapeutic strategies and accelerate their evaluation in clinical trials. However, identification of these biomarkers is logistically challenging in infants, due to sampling limitations and the potential risks of treatment interruption. To facilitate the identification of biomarkers predicting viral rebound, we have developed an infant rhesus macaque (RM) model of oral simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) SHIV.CH505.375H.dCT challenge and analytical treatment interruption (ATI) after short-term ART. We used this model to characterize SHIV replication kinetics and virus-specific immune responses during short-term ART or after ATI and demonstrated plasma viral rebound in 5 out of 6 (83%) infants. We observed a decline in humoral immune responses and partial dampening of systemic immune activation upon initiation of ART in these infants. Furthermore, we monitored SHIV replication and rebound kinetics in infant and adult RMs and found that both infants and adults demonstrated equally potent virus-specific humoral immune responses. Finally, we validated our models by confirming a well-established correlate of the time to viral rebound, namely, the pre-ART plasma viral load, as well as identified additional potential humoral immune correlates. Thus, this model of infant ART and viral rebound can be used and further optimized to define biomarkers of viral rebound following long-term ART as well as to preclinically assess novel therapies to achieve a pediatric HIV functional cure.
METHODS:There is a pressing need for next-generation influenza vaccine strategies that are better able to manage antigenic drift and the cocirculation of multiple drift variants and that consistently improve vaccine effectiveness. Influenza virus NA is a key target antigen as a component of a next-generation vaccine in the influenza field, with evidence for a role in protective immunity in humans. However, mechanisms of protection provided by antibodies directed to NA remain largely unexplored. Herein, we show that antibody Fc interaction with Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) expressed on effector cells contributes to viral control in a murine model of influenza. Importantly, a chimeric mouse-human IgG1 with no direct antiviral activity was demonstrated to solely rely on FcγRs to protect mice from disease. Therefore, antibodies without NA enzymatic inhibitory activity may also play a role in controlling influenza viruses and should be of consideration when designing NA-based vaccines and assessing immunogenicity.Influenza virus neuraminidase (NA) has been under intense study recently as a vaccine antigen, yet there remain unanswered questions regarding the immune response directed toward NA. Antibodies (Abs) that can inhibit NA activity have been shown to aid in the control of disease caused by influenza virus infection in humans and animal models, yet how and if interactions between the Fc portion of anti-NA Abs and Fcγ receptors (FcγR) contribute to protection has not yet been extensively studied. Herein, we show that poly- and monoclonal anti-NA IgG antibodies with NA inhibitory activity can control A(H1N1)pdm09 infection in the absence of FcγRs, but FcγR interaction aided in viral clearance from the lungs. In contrast, a mouse-human chimeric anti-NA IgG1 that was incapable of mediating NA inhibition (NI) solely relied on FcγR interaction to protect transgenic mice (with a humanized FcγR compartment) against A(H1N1)pdm09 infection. As such, this study suggests that NA-specific antibodies contribute to protection against influenza A virus infection even in the absence of NI activity and supports protection through multiple effector mechanisms.
METHODS:Maternal primary and non-primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during pregnancy can result in in utero transmission to the developing fetus. Congenital CMV (cCMV) can result in significant morbidity, mortality or long-term sequelae, including sensorineural hearing loss, the most common sequela. As a leading cause of congenital infections worldwide, cCMV infection meets many of the criteria for screening. However, currently there are no universal programs that offer maternal or neonatal screening to identify infected mothers and infants, no vaccines to prevent infection, and no efficacious and safe therapies available for the treatment of maternal or fetal CMV infection. Data has shown that there are several maternal and neonatal screening strategies, and diagnostic methodologies, that allow the identification of those at risk of developing sequelae and adequately detect cCMV. Nevertheless, many questions remain unanswered in this field. Well-designed clinical trials to address several facets of CMV treatment (in pregnant women, CMV-infected fetuses and both symptomatic and asymptomatic neonates and children) are required. Prevention (vaccines), biology and transmission factors associated with non-primary CMV, and the cost-effectiveness of universal screening, all demand further exploration to fully realize the ultimate goal of preventing cCMV. In the meantime, prevention of primary infection during pregnancy should be championed to all by means of hygiene education.