Androgen receptor expression inversely correlates with histological grade and N stage in ER+/PgRlow male breast cancer.
雄激素受体表达与 ER +/PgRlow 男性乳腺癌的组织学分级和 N 分期呈负相关。
- 作者列表："Scatena C","Scarpitta R","Innocenti L","Miccoli M","Biancotti R","Diodati L","Ghilli M","Naccarato AG
PURPOSE:Androgen Receptor (AR) positivity is often displayed in breast cancer and especially in Male Breast Cancer (MBC), where it appears to be a heterogeneous feature, with its expression ranging between 38 and 81% of cases. Given the fact that circulating androgens represent the most important sex hormones in males and that breast carcinogenesis is characteristically subjected to hormonal mechanisms, our purpose was to investigate the clinicopathological significance of AR in MBC assessing if its expression could be associated with parameters of tumor aggressiveness. METHODS:Clinical and pathological data were retrospectively reviewed for male patients with a diagnosis of invasive breast cancer. AR status was detected by immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumoral tissue sections. Correlations between AR expression and histopathological features were assessed using univariate and multiple comparisons where appropriate, assuming P values < 0.05 as statistically significant. RESULTS:The study included 44 consecutive male patients. AR expression ranged between 10 and 98% and the majority of cases presented a moderate to high expression of this receptor. Adopting a 20% PgR cut-off, statistical analyses highlighted a different behavior of AR: in ER+/PgRhigh group, it positively correlated with the other steroid receptors pointing out the importance of hormonal cross-talk: in ER+/PgRlow group, AR status inversely correlated with histological grade and lymph node status. CONCLUSION:Hormonal factors reveal to play a crucial role in MBC carcinogenesis and progression. Intriguingly, in ER+/PgRlow tumors AR expression significantly correlates with lymph node status, hinting at a favorable biological role of AR in this tumor subgroup.
目的: 雄激素受体 (AR) 阳性常显示在乳腺癌中，尤其是男性乳腺癌 (MBC)，其似乎是一个异质性特征,其表达范围在 38-81% 的病例之间。鉴于循环雄激素代表男性最重要的性激素，并且乳腺癌发生特征性地受到激素机制的影响,我们的目的是探讨 AR 在 MBC 中的临床病理意义，评估其表达是否与肿瘤侵袭性参数相关。 方法: 回顾性分析诊断为浸润性乳腺癌的男性患者的临床和病理资料。在福尔马林固定、石蜡包埋的肿瘤组织切片上通过免疫组化检测 AR 状态。在适当情况下，使用单变量和多重比较评估 AR 表达和组织病理学特征之间的相关性，假设 p值 <0.05 为统计学显著性。 结果: 该研究包括 44 例连续男性患者。AR 表达范围在 10-98% 之间，大多数病例呈现该受体的中度至高表达。采用 20% PgR 截止，统计分析突出了 AR 的不同行为: 在 ER +/PgRhigh 组中,它与其他类固醇受体呈正相关，指出激素串扰的重要性: 在 ER +/PgRlow 组中，AR 状态与组织学分级和淋巴结状态呈负相关。 结论: 激素因素在 MBC 的发生和发展中起着至关重要的作用。有趣的是，在 ER +/PgRlow 肿瘤中，AR 表达与淋巴结状态显著相关，暗示 AR 在该肿瘤亚群中的有利生物学作用。
METHODS::The emerging significance of the bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) role in the extraoral tissues alludes to their potential role in many pathophysiological conditions. The dysregulation of T2R expression and function in disease conditions has now been demonstrated in airways diseases, neurological disorders, and in some cancers. However, the role of T2Rs in the pathophysiology of breast cancer is unexplored thus far. Previously, we demonstrated differential expression of the 25 T2Rs in breast cancer (BC) cells. Based on our previous findings we selected two T2Rs, T2R4 and T2R14 for this work. The objective of the current study is to investigate the expression of T2R4 and T2R14 in BC clinical samples and to examine their physiological role using highly metastatic BC and non-cancerous cell lines. Using approaches, which involve receptor knockdown, pharmacological activation and biochemical assays we report that (i) T2R4 and T2R14 expression patterns are dissimilar, with decreased levels of T2R4 and increased levels of T2R14 in BC clinical samples compared to non-cancerous controls. (ii) Activation of T2Rs with their respective agonist elicited physiological responses in metastatic breast cancer cells, and no responses were seen in non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells. (iii) Agonist activation of T2Rs (irrespective of T2R subtype) induced anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, and anti-migratory responses in highly metastatic breast cancer cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the chemosensory T2R signaling network is involved in evoking physiological responses in the metastatic breast cancer cell line.
METHODS::RAD50 is commonly depleted in basal-like breast cancer with concomitant absence of INPP4B and several tumor suppressors such as BRCA1 and TP53. Our previous study revealed that INPP4B and RAD50 interact and such an interaction is associated with breast cancer survival at the transcriptional, translational and genomic levels. In the present study, we explored single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of these two genes that have synergistic effects on breast cancer survival to decipher mechanisms driving their interactions at the genetic level. The Cox's proportional hazards model was used to test whether SNPs of these two genes are interactively associated with breast cancer survival, following expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and functional investigations. Our study revealed two disease-associating blocks, each encompassing five and two non-linkage disequilibrium linked SNPs of INPP4B and RAD50, respectively. Concomitant presence of any rare homozygote from each disease-associating block is synergistically prognostic of poor breast cancer survival. Such synergy is mediated via bypassing pathways controlling cell proliferation and DNA damage repair, which are represented by INPP4B and RAD50. Our study provided genetic evidence of interactions between INPP4B and RAD50, and deepened our understandings on the orchestrated genetic machinery governing tumor progression.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Increased usage of genomic risk assessment assays suggests increased reliance on data provided by these assays to guide therapy decisions. The current study aimed to assess the change in treatment decision and physician confidence based on the 70-gene risk of recurrence signature (70-GS, MammaPrint) and the 80-gene molecular subtype signature (80-GS, BluePrint) in early stage breast cancer patients. METHODS:IMPACt, a prospective, case-only study, enrolled 452 patients between November 2015 and August 2017. The primary objective population included 358 patients with stage I-II, hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer. The recommended treatment plan and physician confidence were captured before and after receiving results for 70-GS and 80-GS. Treatment was started after obtaining results. The distribution of 70-GS High Risk (HR) and Low Risk (LR) patients was evaluated, in addition to the distribution of 80-GS compared to IHC status. RESULTS:The 70-GS classified 62.5% (n = 224/358) of patients as LR and 37.5% (n = 134/358) as HR. Treatment decisions were changed for 24.0% (n = 86/358) of patients after receiving 70-GS and 80-GS results. Of the LR patients initially prescribed CT, 71.0% (44/62) had CT removed from their treatment recommendation. Of the HR patients not initially prescribed CT, 65.1% (41/63) had CT added. After receiving 70-GS results, CT was included in 83.6% (n = 112/134) of 70-GS HR patient treatment plans, and 91.5% (n = 205/224) of 70-GS LR patient treatment plans did not include CT. For patients who disagreed with the treatment recommended by their physicians, most (94.1%, n = 16/17) elected not to receive CT when it was recommended. For patients whose physician-recommended treatment plan was discordant with 70-GS results, discordance was significantly associated with age and lymph node status. CONCLUSIONS:The IMPACt trial showed that treatment plans were 88.5% (n = 317/358) in agreement with 70-GS results, indicating that physicians make treatment decisions in clinical practice based on the 70-GS result. In clinically high risk, 70-GS Low Risk patients, there was a 60.0% reduction in treatment recommendations that include CT. Additionally, physicians reported having greater confidence in treatment decisions for their patients in 72% (n = 258/358) of cases after receiving 70-GS results. TRIAL REGISTRATION:"Measuring the Impact of MammaPrint on Adjuvant and Neoadjuvant Treatment in Breast Cancer Patients: A Prospective Registry" (NCT02670577) retrospectively registered on Jan 27, 2016.