- 作者列表："Mejdahl MK","Wohlfahrt J","Holm M","Knoop AS","Tjønneland A","Melbye M","Kroman N","Balslev E
PURPOSE:The aim of the present study was to describe histopathologic characteristics of synchronous bilateral breast cancer (SBBC), and by comparing SBBC to unilateral breast cancer (UBC), identify possible etiological mechanisms of SBBC. METHODS:Patients with primary SBBC (diagnosed within 4 months) and UBC diagnosed in Denmark between 1999 and 2015 were included. Detailed data on histopathology were retrieved from the Danish Breast Cancer Group database and the Danish Pathology Register. Associations between bilateral disease and the different histopathologic characteristics were evaluated by odds ratios and estimated by multinomial regression models. RESULTS:1214 patients with SBBC and 59,221 with UBC were included. Patients with SBBC more often had invasive lobular carcinomas (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.13-1.47), a clinically distinct subtype of breast cancer, than UBC patients. Further, they were older than UBC patients, more often had multifocal cancer (OR 1.13; 95% CI 1.01-1.26), and a less aggressive subtype than UBC patients. Invasive lobular carcinoma was associated with having multiple tumors in breast tissue-both in the form of bilateral disease and multifocal disease, and this association was independent of laterality. No similar pattern was observed for other tumor characteristics. CONCLUSION:We identified two etiological mechanisms that could explain some of the occurrence of SBBC. The high proportion of less aggressive carcinomas and higher age of SBBC compared to UBC patients suggests that many are diagnosed at a subclinical stage as slow-growing tumors have a higher probability of simultaneous diagnosis. The high proportion of invasive lobular carcinoma observed in bilateral and multifocal disease, being independent of laterality, suggests that these patients have an increased propensity to malignant tumor formation in breast tissue.
目的: 本研究的目的是描述双侧同步乳腺癌 (SBBC) 的组织病理学特征，并通过比较 SBBC 与单侧乳腺癌 (UBC),确定 SBBC 的可能病因机制。 方法: 纳入 1999 年至 2015 年间在丹麦确诊的原发性 SBBC (4 个月内确诊) 和 UBC 患者。从丹麦乳腺癌组数据库和丹麦病理登记处检索组织病理学的详细数据。通过比值比评估双侧疾病与不同组织病理学特征之间的相关性，并通过多项回归模型进行估计。 结果: 共纳入 SBBC 患者 1214 例，UBC 患者 59,221 例。SBBC 患者比 UBC 患者更易患浸润性小叶癌 (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.13-1.47)，这是一种临床上独特的乳腺癌亚型。此外，他们比 UBC 患者年龄大，更常见于多灶性癌 (OR 1.13; 95% CI 1.01-1.26)，并且比 UBC 患者更具侵袭性。浸润性小叶癌与乳腺组织中有多个肿瘤相关 -- 无论是双侧疾病还是多灶性疾病，这种相关性与偏侧性无关。未观察到其他肿瘤特征的类似模式。 结论: 我们确定了两种病因机制，可以解释 SBBC 的一些发生。与 UBC 患者相比，SBBC 的侵袭性较小的癌比例较高，年龄较高，提示许多患者在亚临床阶段被诊断为缓慢生长的肿瘤同时诊断的概率较高。在双侧和多灶性疾病中观察到的浸润性小叶癌的高比例，独立于偏侧性，提示这些患者在乳腺组织中恶性肿瘤形成的倾向增加。
METHODS::The emerging significance of the bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) role in the extraoral tissues alludes to their potential role in many pathophysiological conditions. The dysregulation of T2R expression and function in disease conditions has now been demonstrated in airways diseases, neurological disorders, and in some cancers. However, the role of T2Rs in the pathophysiology of breast cancer is unexplored thus far. Previously, we demonstrated differential expression of the 25 T2Rs in breast cancer (BC) cells. Based on our previous findings we selected two T2Rs, T2R4 and T2R14 for this work. The objective of the current study is to investigate the expression of T2R4 and T2R14 in BC clinical samples and to examine their physiological role using highly metastatic BC and non-cancerous cell lines. Using approaches, which involve receptor knockdown, pharmacological activation and biochemical assays we report that (i) T2R4 and T2R14 expression patterns are dissimilar, with decreased levels of T2R4 and increased levels of T2R14 in BC clinical samples compared to non-cancerous controls. (ii) Activation of T2Rs with their respective agonist elicited physiological responses in metastatic breast cancer cells, and no responses were seen in non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells. (iii) Agonist activation of T2Rs (irrespective of T2R subtype) induced anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, and anti-migratory responses in highly metastatic breast cancer cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the chemosensory T2R signaling network is involved in evoking physiological responses in the metastatic breast cancer cell line.
METHODS::RAD50 is commonly depleted in basal-like breast cancer with concomitant absence of INPP4B and several tumor suppressors such as BRCA1 and TP53. Our previous study revealed that INPP4B and RAD50 interact and such an interaction is associated with breast cancer survival at the transcriptional, translational and genomic levels. In the present study, we explored single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of these two genes that have synergistic effects on breast cancer survival to decipher mechanisms driving their interactions at the genetic level. The Cox's proportional hazards model was used to test whether SNPs of these two genes are interactively associated with breast cancer survival, following expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and functional investigations. Our study revealed two disease-associating blocks, each encompassing five and two non-linkage disequilibrium linked SNPs of INPP4B and RAD50, respectively. Concomitant presence of any rare homozygote from each disease-associating block is synergistically prognostic of poor breast cancer survival. Such synergy is mediated via bypassing pathways controlling cell proliferation and DNA damage repair, which are represented by INPP4B and RAD50. Our study provided genetic evidence of interactions between INPP4B and RAD50, and deepened our understandings on the orchestrated genetic machinery governing tumor progression.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Increased usage of genomic risk assessment assays suggests increased reliance on data provided by these assays to guide therapy decisions. The current study aimed to assess the change in treatment decision and physician confidence based on the 70-gene risk of recurrence signature (70-GS, MammaPrint) and the 80-gene molecular subtype signature (80-GS, BluePrint) in early stage breast cancer patients. METHODS:IMPACt, a prospective, case-only study, enrolled 452 patients between November 2015 and August 2017. The primary objective population included 358 patients with stage I-II, hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer. The recommended treatment plan and physician confidence were captured before and after receiving results for 70-GS and 80-GS. Treatment was started after obtaining results. The distribution of 70-GS High Risk (HR) and Low Risk (LR) patients was evaluated, in addition to the distribution of 80-GS compared to IHC status. RESULTS:The 70-GS classified 62.5% (n = 224/358) of patients as LR and 37.5% (n = 134/358) as HR. Treatment decisions were changed for 24.0% (n = 86/358) of patients after receiving 70-GS and 80-GS results. Of the LR patients initially prescribed CT, 71.0% (44/62) had CT removed from their treatment recommendation. Of the HR patients not initially prescribed CT, 65.1% (41/63) had CT added. After receiving 70-GS results, CT was included in 83.6% (n = 112/134) of 70-GS HR patient treatment plans, and 91.5% (n = 205/224) of 70-GS LR patient treatment plans did not include CT. For patients who disagreed with the treatment recommended by their physicians, most (94.1%, n = 16/17) elected not to receive CT when it was recommended. For patients whose physician-recommended treatment plan was discordant with 70-GS results, discordance was significantly associated with age and lymph node status. CONCLUSIONS:The IMPACt trial showed that treatment plans were 88.5% (n = 317/358) in agreement with 70-GS results, indicating that physicians make treatment decisions in clinical practice based on the 70-GS result. In clinically high risk, 70-GS Low Risk patients, there was a 60.0% reduction in treatment recommendations that include CT. Additionally, physicians reported having greater confidence in treatment decisions for their patients in 72% (n = 258/358) of cases after receiving 70-GS results. TRIAL REGISTRATION:"Measuring the Impact of MammaPrint on Adjuvant and Neoadjuvant Treatment in Breast Cancer Patients: A Prospective Registry" (NCT02670577) retrospectively registered on Jan 27, 2016.