A prospective randomized controlled trial of omeprazole for preventing esophageal stricture in grade 2b and 3a corrosive esophageal injuries
奥美拉唑预防 2b 级和 3a 级食管腐蚀性损伤食管狭窄的前瞻性随机对照试验
- 作者列表："Mahawongkajit, Prasit","Tomtitchong, Prakitpunthu","Boochangkool, Nuttorn","Mingmalairak, Chatchai","Awsakulsutthi, Surajit","Havanond, Chittinad
Objectives Esophageal stricture is a significant complication of grade 2b and 3a esophageal injuries and causes much patient suffering. Preventing strictures would be beneficial to patients but there are currently no proven effective drugs. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of omeprazole for preventing esophageal stricture in adults with grade 2b and 3a corrosive esophageal injuries. Methods This study was an open single-center prospective randomized controlled trial that took place from April 2018 to January 2020. Patients were randomized to standard treatment or 80 mg/day intravenously × 3 days followed by 40 mg/day orally for 4 weeks. They were endoscoped at baseline and 4 weeks post discharge. Strictures were confirmed radiologically. Results 20 patients were enrolled: 15 with grade 2b and five with grade 3a injuries. Standard care and omeprazole groups numbered 10 each. At 1 month, seven and two patients developed strictures in the standard and omeprazole groups, respectively, p = 0.024 , for a risk reduction of 71.4%. Conclusions Omeprazole reduced the risk of short-term developing esophageal strictures following grade 2b and 3a corrosive esophageal injuries. Larger studies are needed to reconfirm this finding. Thai Clinical Trials Registry (TCTR) number TCTR20190504001
目的食管狭窄是 2b级和 3a级食管损伤的严重并发症，给患者带来很大痛苦。预防狭窄对患者有益，但目前尚无有效的药物。本研究旨在评价奥美拉唑预防成人 2b级和 3a级食管腐蚀性损伤食管狭窄的效果。方法本研究为开放性单中心前瞻性随机对照试验，时间为 2018 年 4 月至 2020 年 1 月。患者随机接受标准治疗或 80 mg/天静脉注射 × 3 天，随后口服 40 mg/天，共 4 周。在基线和出院后 4 周进行内镜检查。放射学证实狭窄。结果入选 20 例患者: 2b级 15 例，3a级 5 例。标准护理和奥美拉唑组各编号 10。在 1 个月时，标准组和奥美拉唑组分别有 7 例和 2 例患者发生狭窄，p = 0.024，风险降低 71.4%。结论奥美拉唑可降低 2b级和 3a级食管腐蚀性损伤后短期发生食管狭窄的风险。需要更大的研究来再次证实这一发现。泰国临床试验注册中心 (TCTR) 编号TCTR20190504001
METHODS:PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to compare the survival and toxicities in cervical esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (CESCC) treated by concurrent chemoradiothrapy with either three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques. Materials and Methods:A total of 112 consecutive CESCC patients were retrospectively reviewed. 3D-CRT and IMRT groups had been analyzed by propensity score matching method, with sex, age, Karnofsky performance status, induction chemotherapy, and tumor stage well matched. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model were used for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Toxicities were compared between two groups by Fisher exact test. RESULTS:With a median follow-up time of 34.9 months, the 3-year OS (p=0.927) and PFS (p=0.859) rate was 49.6% and 45.8% in 3D-CRT group, compared with 54.4% and 42.8% in IMRT group. The rates of grade ≥ 3 esophagitis, grade ≥ 2 pneumonitis, esophageal stricture, and hemorrhage were comparable between two groups, while the rate of tracheostomy dependence was much higher in IMRT group than 3D-CRT group (14.3% vs.1.8%, p=0.032). Radiotherapy technique (hazard ratio [HR], 0.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01 to 0.79) and pretreatment hoarseness (HR, 0.12; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.70) were independently prognostic of tracheostomy dependence. CONCLUSION:No survival benefits had been observed while comparing IMRT versus 3D-CRT in CESCC patients. IMRT with fraction dose escalation and pretreatment hoarseness were considered to be associated with a higher risk for tracheostomy dependence. Radiation dose escalation beyond 60 Gy should be taken into account carefully when using IMRT with hypofractionated regimen.
METHODS::The radial force of esophageal stents may not completely change during extraction and therefore, the procedure of stent removal may cause tissue damage. The present study reports the manufacture of 2 novel detachable stents, which were designed to reduce tissue damage through their capacity to be taken or fall apart prior to removal and evaluated the supporting properties of these stents and the extent of local mucosal injury during their removal. The stents were manufactured by braiding, heat-setting, coating and connecting. The properties of the stents were evaluated by determining the following parameters: Expansion point, softening point, stent flexibility, radial compression ratio and radial force. A total of 18 rabbits with induced esophageal stricture were randomly assigned to 3 groups as follows: Detachable stent (DS) group, biodegradable stent (BS) group and control group. The stricture rate, complications, survival, degradation and stent removal were observed over 8 weeks. The stents of the DS and BS groups provided a similar supporting effect. The stricture rate, incidence of complications and survival were also similar between the 2 groups, while significant differences were noted between the DS and control groups and between the BS and control groups. In the BS group, the stents were degraded and moved to the stomach within 7 weeks (2 in 6 weeks and 3 in 7 weeks). The debris was extracted using biopsy forceps. In the DS group, all stents were easy to remove and 2 cases exhibited minor hemorrhage. In conclusion, the 2 types of novel detachable stent provided an equally efficient supporting effect in vitro and in vivo and may reduce the incidence of secondary injury during stent removal.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Immune imbalance and inflammation have been suggested as key factors of Barrett's esophagus (BE) pathway towards adenocarcinoma. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) indirectly reflects the relation between innate and adaptive immune systems and has been studied in premalignant conditions as a biomarker for cancer diagnosis. Our aim was to investigate if increasing values of NLR correlated with advancing stages of BE progression to dysplasia and neoplasia. METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed data of patients with biopsies reporting BE between 2013 and 2017 and with a complete blood count within 6 months from the endoscopy, as well as patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). NLR was calculated as neutrophil count/lymphocyte count. Cases (n = 113) were classified as non-dysplastic BE (NDBE, n = 72), dysplastic BE (DBE, n = 11) and EAC (n = 30). RESULTS:NLR progressively increased across groups (NDBE, 1.92 ± 0.7; DBE, 2.92 ± 1.1; EAC 4.54 ± 2.9), with a significant correlation between its increasing value and the presence of dysplasia or neoplasia (r = 0.53, p 2.27 was able to diagnose EAC with 80% sensitivity and 71% specificity (area under the curve = 0.8). CONCLUSION:NLR correlates with advancing stages of BE progression, a finding that reinforces the role of immune imbalance in EAC carcinogenesis and suggests a possible use of this marker for risk stratification on surveillance strategies.