Maternal Microbiota, Cortisol Concentration, and Post-Partum Weight Recovery are Dependent on Mode of Delivery.
- 作者列表："Selma-Royo M","García-Mantrana I","Calatayud M","Parra-Llorca A","Martínez-Costa C","Collado MC
:The importance of the maternal microbiota in terms of the initial bacterial seeding has previously been highlighted; however, little is currently known about the perinatal factors that could affect it. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various delivery-related factors on the intestinal microbiome at delivery time and on post-partum weight retention. Data were collected from mothers (n = 167) during the first four months post-partum. A subset of 100 mothers were selected for the determination of the salivary cortisol concentration and microbiome composition at birth by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The maternal microbiota was classified into two distinct clusters with significant differences in microbial composition and diversity. Maternal microbiota was also significantly influenced by the mode of delivery. Moreover, the salivary cortisol concentration was associated with some maternal microbiota genera and it was significantly higher in the vaginal delivery group (p = 0.003). The vaginal delivery group exhibited lower post-partum weight retention than the C-section (CS) mothers at four months post-partum (p < 0.001). These results support the hypothesis that the mode of delivery as well as the codominant hormonal changes could influence the maternal microbiota and possibly impact maternal weight recovery during the post-partum period.
: 母体微生物群在初始细菌接种方面的重要性先前已经得到强调; 然而，目前对可能影响它的围产期因素知之甚少。本研究的目的是评估各种分娩相关因素对分娩时肠道微生物组和产后体重保持的影响。数据来自产后前四个月的母亲 (n = 167)。选择 100 例母亲的子集，通过 16S rRNA 基因测序测定出生时唾液皮质醇浓度和微生物组组成。母体微生物群被分为两个不同的簇，在微生物组成和多样性方面有显著差异。母体微生物群也受分娩方式的显著影响。此外，唾液皮质醇浓度与一些母体菌群属相关，在阴道分娩组中显著较高 (p = 0.003)。阴道分娩组在产后 4 个月时表现出比剖腹产 (CS) 母亲更低的产后体重潴留 (p <0.001)。这些结果支持这样的假设，即分娩方式以及共显性激素变化可能影响母体微生物群，并可能影响产后母体体重恢复。
METHODS::Maternal lifestyle affects both mother health and pregnancy outcome in humans. Several studies have demonstrated that interventions oriented towards reducing stress and anxiety have positive effects on pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, excessive gestational weight, gestational diabetes and preterm birth. In this work, we showed that the environmental enrichment (EE), defined as a noninvasive and biological significant stimulus of the sensory pathway combined with voluntary physical activity, prevented preterm birth (PTB) rate in a 41% in an inflammatory mouse model induced by the systemic administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, we found that EE modulates maternal metabolism and produces an anti-inflammatory environment that contributes to pregnancy maintenance. In pregnant mice uterus, EE reduces the expression of TLR4 and CD14 (the LPS receptor and its coactivator protein), preventing the LPS-induced increase in PGE2 and PGF2α release and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. In cervical tissue, EE inhibits cervical ripening events, such as PGE2 release, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 increased activity and neutrophil recruitment, therefore conserving cervical function. It seems that EE exposure could mimic the stress and anxiety-reducing techniques mentioned above, explaining, at least partially, the beneficial effects of having a healthy lifestyle before and during gestation. Furthermore, we propose that designing an EE protocol for humans could be a noninvasive and preventive therapy for pregnancy complications, averting pre-term birth occurrence and dreaded sequelae that are present in the offspring born to soon.
METHODS:PROBLEM:We aimed to investigate the main causes of recurrent miscarriage (RM) in patients with losses after spontaneous gestation (SG) and after in vitro fertilization (IVF). METHOD OF STUDY:A prospective case-control study was conducted. The eligible patients were women who had experienced two or more consecutive abortions after less than 12 weeks gestation, two consecutive losses after SG or two consecutive losses after IVF. All patients were subjected to the following evaluations: karyotyping of the aborted material, alloimmune and autoimmune marker testing, and acquired and hereditary thrombophilia marker testing. RESULTS:In total, 58 patients were eligible: 32 patients with RM after SG and 26 patients with RM after IVF. The factors associated with RM were genetic (29%), immune (14%), thrombophilic (21%), and thrombophilic and immune (24%), and only 12% of the cases were idiopathic. Comparing the two study groups (SG and IVF), all studied factors were similar, except for a higher ANA positivity observed in the SG group (SG 30.4% versus IVF 5.3%, OR 8.6 (CI 1.1 - 21.1, P 0.048). CONCLUSIONS:Our study identified the possibly factors associated with recurrent miscarriage in 86% of the cases, and these factors appear to be similar in patients with recurrent miscarriage after spontaneous gestation and IVF. This study demonstrates that IVF with PGT-A with euploid embryo transfer could reduce abortions by up to 29%, but other factors needs to be investigated even in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization.
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the impact of pre-operative Music Therapy (MT) on pain in first-trimester abortion under local anaesthesia (ALA). DESIGN:Randomised controlled trial comparing patients undergoing a first-trimester ALA with or without a pre-operative MT session. SETTING:University hospital of Angers from November 2016 to August 2017. POPULATION:Patients who underwent first-trimester abortion under ALA. METHODS:Patients allocated to MT group underwent a pre-operative 20 minutes session of MT. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) just before the procedure, during the procedure, at the end of the procedure and upon returning to the ward. RESULTS:159 patients were randomised (80 in MT group, and 79 in the control group). 2 patients were excluded from the control group and 6 from the MT group. Therefore, 77 patients were analysed in the control group and 74 in the MT group. The intensity of pain were similar in both the MT group and the Control group just before the procedure (VAS: 4.0±2.9 vs. 3.6±2.5, p=0.78), during the procedure (VAS: 5.3±2.5 vs. 4.9±2.9, p=0.78), at the end of the procedure (VAS: 2.7±2.4 vs. 2.6±2.4, p=0.43) and upon returning to the ward (VAS:1.8±2.0 vs. 1.5±2.0, p=0.84). The difference in pain between entering the department and returning to the room after the procedure was similar between the MT and Control groups (0.3±2.5 vs. 0.3±2.4 VAS levels difference; p=0.92). CONCLUSION:Music therapy session before an ALA procedure resulted in no improvement in patient perception of pain during a first-trimester abortion.