Differential effects of metformin on reductive activity and energy production in pituitary tumor cells compared to myogenic precursors
- 作者列表："Tulipano, Giovanni","Paghera, Simone","Missale, Cristina","Giustina, Andrea
Purpose Given the multiple targets of metformin within cells, the mechanism by which it may exert a growth-inhibitory action on pituitary tumor cells in vitro remains to be explored. Previous research stressed metformin-induced changes in the activity of signaling pathways regulating cell growth and cell death. In this work, we investigated the effects of metformin on cell viability markers related to cell metabolic activity in rat pituitary tumor cells versus rat myogenic precursors as a model of normal proliferating somatic cells. Methods We designed our experiments in order to use the MTT reduction as a marker of cellular reductive activity and the total cellular ATP levels as a marker of energy supply during short incubations with different metabolic substrates (sodium pyruvate, D-glucose, L-glutamine, sodium citrate). Then, we extended the analysis to extracellular glucose consumption, extracellular medium acidification and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex activity. Results Metformin was found to be effective in both cell types at the same concentrations, although the outcome of the treatment was quite the opposite. Unexpectedly, metformin increased the viability of subconfluent rat myoblasts. Rat pituitary tumor cells and myoblasts differed in the utilization of distinct metabolic substrates and the PDH complex activity. Metformin actions on reductive activity and ATP production were substrate-dependent. Conclusions Overall, this work points out that metformin actions at the cellular level depend on metabolic features and metabolic requirements of cells. The pyruvate metabolic branch point is most likely to play a main role in the variability of cell response to metformin.
目的鉴于二甲双胍在细胞内的多个靶点，其在体外对垂体瘤细胞发挥生长抑制作用的机制仍有待探讨。以前的研究强调二甲双胍诱导调节细胞生长和细胞死亡的信号通路活性的变化。在这项工作中，我们研究了二甲双胍对大鼠垂体瘤细胞中与大鼠肌源性前体相关的细胞活力标志物的影响，作为正常增殖体细胞的模型。方法我们设计我们的实验，以使用噻唑蓝 (MTT) 减少标记细胞还原活性和细胞内 ATP 水平作为标记的能源供应短时孵育不同代谢底物 (钠丙酮酸,D-葡萄糖，L-谷氨酰胺，柠檬酸钠)。然后，我们将分析扩展到细胞外葡萄糖消耗、细胞外介质酸化和丙酮酸脱氢酶 (PDH) 复合物活性。结果发现二甲双胍在相同浓度下对两种细胞类型有效，尽管治疗的结果完全相反。出乎意料的是，二甲双胍增加了亚融合大鼠成肌细胞的活力。大鼠垂体瘤细胞和成肌细胞在利用不同的代谢底物和 PDH 复合物活性方面存在差异。二甲双胍对还原活性和 ATP 生成的作用是底物依赖性的。结论总的来说，这项工作指出二甲双胍在细胞水平的作用取决于细胞的代谢特征和代谢需求。丙酮酸代谢分支点最有可能在细胞对二甲双胍反应的变异性中起主要作用。
METHODS:PURPOSE:To generate a preclinical model of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant gliomas from glioma patients and design a MRS method to test the compatibility of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) production between the preclinical model and patients. METHODS:Five patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mice were generated from two glioma patients with IDH1 R132H mutation. A PRESS sequence was tailored at 9.4 T, with computer simulation and phantom analyses, for improving 2HG detection in mice. 2HG and other metabolites in the PDX mice were measured using the optimized MRS at 9.4 T and compared with 3 T MRS measurements of the metabolites in the parental-tumor patients. Spectral fitting was performed with LCModel using in-house basis spectra. Metabolite levels were quantified with reference to water. RESULTS:The PRESS TE was optimized to be 96 ms, at which the 2HG 2.25 ppm signal was narrow and inverted, thereby leading to unequivocal separation of the 2HG resonance from adjacent signals from other metabolites. The optimized MRS provided precise detection of 2HG in mice compared to short-TE MRS at 9.4 T. The 2HG estimates in PDX mice were in excellent agreement with the 2HG measurements in the patients. CONCLUSION:The similarity of 2HG production between PDX models and parental-tumor patients indicates that PDX tumors retain the parental IDH metabolic fingerprint and can serve as a preclinical model for improving our understanding of the IDH-mutation associated metabolic reprogramming.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Gliomas consist of a heterogeneous group of tumors. This study aimed to report the incidences of O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation, 1p19q co-deletion, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) gene mutations, and inactivating mutations of alpha-thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked (ATRX) in high-grade gliomas in an ethnically diverse population. METHODS:Records of patients who underwent surgery for high-grade gliomas from January 2013 to March 2017 at our institution were obtained. The patients' age, gender, ethnicity, Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs), tumor location and biomarkers status were recorded. Data were analyzed using chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests, Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank test. RESULTS:181 patients were selected (56 with grade III gliomas, 125 with grade IV gliomas). In the grade III group, 55% had MGMT promoter methylation, 41% had 1p19q co-deletion, 35% had IDH1 mutation and none had ATRX loss. In the grade IV group, 30% had MGMT promoter methylation, 2% had 1p19q co-deletion, 15% had IDH1 mutation and 8% had ATRX loss. After adjusting for effects of age, surgery and pre-operative ADL statuses, only MGMT promoter methylation was found to be significantly associated with longer overall survival time in grade III (p = 0.024) and IV patients (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS:The incidences of MGMT promoter methylation and IDH1 mutation were found to be comparable to globally reported rates, but those of 1p19q co-deletion and ATRX loss seemed to be lower in our cohort. MGMT promoter methylation was associated with increased overall survival in our cohort and might serve as favorable prognostic factor.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Glioblastoma multiforme is a CNS cancer characterized by diffuse infiltrative growth, aggressive clinical behavior and very poor prognosis. The state-of-art clinical approach to this disease consists of surgical resection followed by radiotherapy plus concurrent and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide. Tumor recurrence occurs in virtually all cases, therefore, despite any treatment, the median survival is very low (14.6 months), which makes the approach to these patients a challenging clinical issue. MAIN BODY:The escalating costs and times required for new medications to reach the bedside make repurposing or repositioning of old drugs, when scientific bases allow their use in other pathologies, an appealing strategy. Here, we analyze a number of literature data concerning the antipsychotic chlorpromazine, the founder of the phenothiazines class of drugs, a medication widely used in the clinics for approximately 60 years. The drug exerts its effects on psychiatric patients by interfering with the dopamine receptor D2, although more recent pharmacodynamics studies ascribe chlorpromazine a series of biological effects on cancer cells, all converging in hindering also glioblastoma survival capabilities. SHORT CONCLUSIONS:On these bases, and assisted by the information on the well-established chlorpromazine toxicity and dosage in humans, we designed a Phase II clinical trial involving the combination of chlorpromazine with the standard treatment, temozolomide, in the adjuvant phase of the therapeutic protocol. Patients displaying hypo-methylation of the MGMT gene, and thus intrinsically resistant to temozolomide, will be enrolled. The endpoints of this study are the analysis of toxicity and clinical activity, as evaluated in terms of Progression-Free Survival, of the association of chlorpromazine with the first-line treatment for this very serious form of cancer.