A comparison of the proportion of early stage cholangiocarcinoma found in an ultrasound-screening program compared to walk-in patients.
- 作者列表："Khuntikeo N","Koonmee S","Sa-Ngiamwibool P","Chamadol N","Laopaiboon V","Titapun A","Yongvanit P","Loilome W","Namwat N","Andrews RH","Petney TN","Thinkhamrop K","Chaichaya N","Tawarungruang C","Thuanman J","Thinkhamrop B
BACKGROUND:Patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) usually have no specific symptoms until an advance stage of the disease and curative treatment is not possible. Patients with early stage, operable disease can be found using ultrasonography (US). A US-screening program was implemented in Thailand where CCA incidence is the highest worldwide. Here we evaluate the effectiveness of the program by comparing the proportion of individuals with early stage CCA in the screening group with that of the walk-in group presenting at hospitals with clinical symptoms. METHODS:All patients had a pathological diagnosis of CCA. The difference in the proportions and the 95% confidence interval (CI) were obtained using binomial regression. RESULTS:Of the 762 histologically proven CCA cases, 161 were from the screening group and 601 from the walk-in group. The proportion of early stage CCA (stages 0 to II) diagnosed was 84.5% in the screening and 21.6% in the walk-in groups. After adjustment age, gender, and liver fluke infection, there was a significantly higher proportion (P < 0.001) and higher chance (P < 0.001) of having early stage CCA in the screening group than in the walk-in group. CONCLUSIONS:US-screening is an effective tool for detecting early stage, operable CCA in high incidence areas.
背景: 胆管癌 (CCA) 患者通常没有特定的症状，直到疾病的进展阶段，并且不可能进行根治性治疗。使用超声检查 (US) 可以发现早期、可手术疾病的患者。在全球 CCA 发病率最高的泰国实施了美国筛查项目。在这里，我们通过比较筛查组中早期 CCA 个体与在医院出现临床症状的步入式组的比例来评价该方案的有效性。 方法: 所有患者均有病理诊断为 CCA。使用二项式回归获得比例差异和 95% 置信区间 (CI)。 结果: 在 762 例经组织学证实的 CCA 病例中，161 例来自筛查组，601 例来自步入式组。筛查中诊断早期 CCA (0 至 II 期) 的比例为 84.5%，步入式组为 21.6%。调整年龄、性别和肝吸虫感染后，肝吸虫感染率明显高于对照组 (P <0.001)，肝吸虫感染率明显高于对照组 (P <0.001)。筛查组比步入式组有早期 CCA。 结论: 美国筛查是检测高发区早期、可手术 CCA 的有效工具。
METHODS::Aims: Radiotherapy is predominantly used as one of the treatment modalities to treat local tumor in colorectal cancer (CRC). Hindrance in disease treatment can be attributed to radio-tolerance of cancer stem cells (CSCs) subsistence in the tumor. Understanding the radio-resistant property of CSCs might help in the accomplishment of targeted radiotherapy treatment and increased disease-free survival. Telomeric RAP1 contributes in modulation of various transcription factors leading to aberrant cell proliferation and tumor cell migration. Therefore, we investigated the role of RAP1 in maintaining resistance phenotype and acquired stemness in radio-resistant cells.Main Methods: Characterization of HCT116 derived radio-resistant cell (HCT116RR) was performed by cell survival and DNA damage profiling. RAP1 silenced cells were investigated for DNA damage and expression of CSC markers through western blotting and Real-time PCR post-irradiation. Molecular docking and co-immunoprecipitation study were performed to investigate RAP1 and KLF4 interaction followed by RAP1 protein status profiling in CRC patient.Key findings: We established radio-resistant cells, which showed tolerance to radiotherapy and elevated expression of CSC markers along with RAP1. RAP1 silencing showed enhanced DNA damage and reduced expression of CSC markers post-irradiation. We observed strong physical interaction between RAP1 and KLF4 protein. Furthermore, higher RAP1 expression was observed in the tumor of CRC patients. Dataset analysis also revealed that high expression of RAP1 expression is associated with poor prognosis.Significance: We conclude that higher expression ofRAP1 implicates its possible role in promoting radio-resistance in CRC cells by modulating DNA damage and CSC phenotype.
METHODS::Cancer stem-like cells are rare immortal cells within tumor, which are thought to play important roles in ionizing radiation (IR) therapy-resistance. Quercetin is a natural flavonoid with potential anti-cancer properties without significant cytotoxicity in normal tissues. In this study, we demonstrated that quercetin-IR combination treatment exhibited more dramatic anti-cancer effect than either quercetin or IR treatment alone via targeting colon cancer stem cells (CSCs) and inhibiting the Notch-1 signaling. These effects were further verified by in vivo studies which showed remarkable decrease of the CSCs markers and the expression of Notch-1 signaling proteins in human colon cancer xenografts in nude mice. Co-treatment with quercetin and low dose of radiation significantly reduced the expressions of all five proteins of γ-secretase complex in HT-29 and DLD-1 cells. In addition, ectopic expression of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) partly reversed the inhibition effects by the combination therapy. In conclusion, our results indicated that the combination of quercetin (20 μM) and IR (5Gy) might be a promising therapeutic strategy for colon cancer treatment by targeting colon cancer stem-like cells and inhibiting the Notch-1 signaling. In future studies, we intend to further explore the potential therapeutic efficacy of the quercetin-radiation combination treatment in clinical trials.
METHODS:OBJECTIVES:Long-term prevention of metastatic disease remains a challenge in locally advanced rectal cancer, and robust pretreatment prognostic factors for metastatic progression are lacking. We hypothesized that detecting circulating tumor-specific DNA (ctDNA) based on hypermethylation of the neuropeptide Y gene (meth-ctDNA) could be a prognostic marker in the neoadjuvant setting; we examined this in a secondary, explorative analysis of a prospective trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Serum samples were prospectively collected in a phase III trial for locally advanced rectal cancer. Positivity for and fractional abundance of meth-ctDNA in baseline samples were estimated. Overall survival (OS) and the rate of distant metastases were compared between meth-ctDNA positive and negative patients; other prognostic factors were controlled for in multivariate Cox regression. Importance of quantitative load was examined by considering the fractional abundance of meth-ctDNA relative to total circulating DNA. RESULTS:Baseline serum samples were available for 146 patients. In total, 30 patients had presence of meth-ctDNA, with no correlation with cT (P=0.8) or cN (P=0.6) stages. Median follow-up was 10.6 years for OS and 5.1 years for freedom from distant metastases. Patients with meth-ctDNA had significantly worse 5-year OS (47% vs. 69%), even when controlling for other prognostic factors (hazard ratio=2.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-1.51). This seemed mainly driven by disparity in the rate of distant metastases (55% vs. 72% at 5 y, P=0.01); hazard ratio=2.20 (95% confidence interval, 1.19-4.07, P=0.01) in multivariate analysis. Increased quantitative load was highly significant for worse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:Meth-ctDNA could be a potential prognostic marker in the neoadjuvant setting and may, if validated, identify patients at increased risk of distant metastases.