Neutrophil Extracellular Trapping Network Promotes the Pathogenesis of Neutrophil-associated Asthma through Macrophages.
- 作者列表："Chen X","Li Y","Qin L","He R","Hu C
:Asthma is a complex airway inflammatory disease that can be roughly classified into eosinophilic phenotype and non-eosinophilic phenotype. Most of the latter manifested as airway inflammation dominated by neutrophil infiltration, namely neutrophil-dominated asthma (NA). Neutrophil extracellular trapping (NETs) is a newly discovered antimicrobial mechanism of neutrophils; however, NETs can not only resist killing pathogenic microorganisms, but also promote tissue damage and autoimmune response. In the present study, we successfully established NA model in C57BL/6 mice and observed the increased formation of NETs. In NA mice, the free DNA abundance, the airway resistance, the cell numbers (total cell number, macrophage number, and neutrophil number), and inflammatory cytokine levels were significantly increased while the lung dynamic compliance was significantly reduced. After DNase I treatment, the above indexes in NA mice were all improved. In NA mice, either treatment with macrophage scavenger or IL-1β neutralizing antibody also improved the above-described indexes. In vitro, in human peripheral blood-derived neutrophils, PMA treatment significantly increased the formation of NETs. Furthermore, in macrophages differentiated from THP-1 monocytes, LPS or isolated NETs both significantly increased the levels of cytokines. In conclusion, NETs can stimulate macrophages to secrete IL-1β, which promotes neutrophils infiltration in the airway; infiltrated neutrophils, in turn, generates NETs, which can amplify the tissue damage caused by NETs and macrophages, inducing and aggravating NA.
: 哮喘是一种复杂的气道炎症性疾病，大致可分为嗜酸性表型和非嗜酸性表型。后者多表现为以中性粒细胞浸润为主的气道炎症，即中性粒细胞为主的哮喘 (NA)。中性粒细胞胞外诱捕 (NETs) 是新近发现的一种嗜中性粒细胞的抗菌机制; 然而，NETs 不仅能抵抗杀死病原微生物，还能促进组织损伤和自身免疫反应。在本研究中，我们成功建立了 C57BL/6 小鼠 NA 模型，并观察了 NETs 的形成增加。在 NA 小鼠中，游离 DNA 丰度、气道阻力、细胞数 (总细胞数、巨噬细胞数和中性粒细胞数) 、炎症因子水平明显升高，肺动态顺应性明显降低。经 DNase I 治疗后，NA 小鼠上述指标均有所改善。在 NA 小鼠中，无论是用巨噬细胞清道夫还是用 il-1 β 中和抗体治疗，也改善了上述指标。在体外，在人外周血来源的中性粒细胞中，PMA 处理显著增加了 NETs 的形成。此外，在从 THP-1 单核细胞分化的巨噬细胞中，LPS 或分离的 NETs 均显著增加细胞因子的水平。综上所述，NETs 可刺激巨噬细胞分泌 il-1 β，促进气道内中性粒细胞浸润; 浸润的中性粒细胞，又生成 NETs，可放大 NETs 和巨噬细胞引起的组织损伤,诱发和加重 NA。
METHODS:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:A critical role for sphingosine kinase/sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) pathway in the control of airway function has been demonstrated in respiratory diseases. Here, we address S1P contribution in a mouse model of mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:C57BL/6J mice have been exposed to room air or cigarette smoke up to 11 months and killed at different time points. Functional and molecular studies have been performed. KEY RESULTS:Cigarette smoke caused emphysematous changes throughout the lung parenchyma coupled to a progressive collagen deposition in both peribronchiolar and peribronchial areas. The high and low airways showed an increased reactivity to cholinergic stimulation and α-smooth muscle actin overexpression. Similarly, an increase in airway reactivity and lung resistances following S1P challenge occurred in smoking mice. A high expression of S1P, Sph-K2 , and S1P receptors (S1P2 and S1P3 ) has been detected in the lung of smoking mice. Sphingosine kinases inhibition reversed the increased cholinergic response in airways of smoking mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:S1P signalling up-regulation follows the disease progression in smoking mice and is involved in the development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Our study defines a therapeutic potential for S1P inhibitors in management of airways hyperresponsiveness associated to emphysema in smokers with both asthma and COPD.
METHODS::The interim results from this 90-day multi-dose, inhalation toxicology study with life-time post-exposure observation has shown an important fundamental difference in persistence and pathological response in the lung between brake dust derived from brake-pads manufactured with chrysotile, TiO2 or chrysotile alone in comparison to the amphiboles, crocidolite and amosite asbestos. In the brake dust exposure groups no significant pathological response was observed at any time. Slight macrophage accumulation of particles was noted. Wagner-scores, were from 1 to 2 (1 = air-control group) and were similar to the TiO2 group. Chrysotile being biodegradable, shows a weakening of its matrix and breaking into short fibers & particles that can be cleared by alveolar macrophages and continued dissolution. In the chrysotile exposure groups, particle laden macrophage accumulation was noted leading to a slight interstitial inflammatory response (Wagner-score 1-3). There was no peribronchiolar inflammation and occasional very slight interstitial fibrosis. The histopathology and the confocal analyses clearly differentiate the pathological response from amphibole asbestos, crocidolite and amosite, compared to that from the brake dust and chrysotile. Both crocidolite and amosite induced persistent inflammation, microgranulomas, and fibrosis (Wagner-scores 4), which persisted through the post exposure period. The confocal microscopy of the lung and snap-frozen chestwalls quantified the extensive inflammatory response and collagen development in the lung and on the visceral and parietal surfaces. The interim results reported here, provide a clear basis for differentiating the effects from brake dust exposure from those following amphibole asbestos exposure. The subsequent results through life-time post-exposure will follow.
METHODS::The respiratory tract is lined by a pseudo-stratified epithelium from the nose to terminal bronchioles. This first line of defense of the lung against external stress includes five main cell types: basal, suprabasal, club, goblet and multiciliated cells, as well as rare cells such as ionocytes, neuroendocrine and tuft/brush cells. At homeostasis, this epithelium self-renews at low rate but is able of fast regeneration upon damage. Airway epithelial cell lineages during regeneration have been investigated in the mouse by genetic labeling, mainly after injuring the epithelium with noxious agents. From these approaches, basal cells have been identified as progenitors of club, goblet and multiciliated cells, but also of ionocytes and neuroendocrine cells. Single-cell RNA sequencing, coupled to lineage inference algorithms, has independently allowed the establishment of comprehensive pictures of cell lineage relationships in both mouse and human. In line with genetic tracing experiments in mouse trachea, studies using single-cell RNA sequencing (RNAseq) have shown that basal cells first differentiate into club cells, which in turn mature into goblet cells or differentiate into multiciliated cells. In the human airway epithelium, single-cell RNAseq has identified novel intermediate populations such as deuterosomal cells, 'hybrid' mucous-multiciliated cells and progenitors of rare cells. Novel differentiation dynamics, such as a transition from goblet to multiciliated cells have also been discovered. The future of cell lineage relationships in the respiratory tract now resides in the combination of genetic labeling approaches with single-cell RNAseq to establish, in a definitive manner, the hallmarks of cellular lineages in normal and pathological situations.