老年男性队列中的饮食摄入量、 D3Cr 肌肉量和阑尾瘦肉量。
- 作者列表："Rogers-Soeder TS","Peters KE","Lane NE","Shikany JM","Judd S","Langsetmo L","Hoffman AR","Evans WJ","Cawthon PM
BACKGROUND:We examined cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns, macronutrient intake, and measures of muscle mass and lean mass in older men. METHODS:Participants in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) cohort (n = 903; mean ± SD age 84.2 ± 4 years) completed brief Block food frequency questionnaires (May 2014-May 2016); factor analysis was used to derive dietary patterns. The D3-creatine (D3Cr) dilution method was used to measure muscle mass; dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to measure appendicular lean mass (ALM). Generalized linear models were used to report adjusted means of outcomes by dietary pattern. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine associations between macronutrients and D3Cr muscle mass and DXA ALM. Multivariable models were adjusted for age, race, clinic site, education, depression, total energy intake, height, and percent body fat. RESULTS:Greater adherence to a Western dietary pattern (high factor loadings for red meat, fried foods, and high-fat dairy) was associated with higher D3Cr muscle mass (p-trend = .026). Adherence to the Healthy dietary pattern (high factor loadings for fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and lean meats) was not associated with D3Cr muscle mass or DXA ALM. Total protein (β = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.14) and nondairy animal protein (β = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.10, 0.21) were positively associated with D3Cr muscle mass. Nondairy animal protein (β = 0.06, 95% CI = 0.002, 0.11) was positively associated with DXA ALM. Associations with other macronutrients were inconsistent. CONCLUSIONS:Nondairy animal protein intake (within a Western dietary pattern and alone) was positively associated with D3Cr muscle mass in older men.
背景: 我们研究了膳食模式、大量营养素摄入以及老年男性肌肉质量和瘦体重测量之间的横断面相关性。 方法: 男性骨质疏松性骨折 (MrOS) 队列 (n = 903; 平均 ± SD 年龄 84.2 ± 4 岁) 的参与者完成简短的块状食物频率问卷 (2014 年 5 月-2016 年 5 月); 采用因子分析推导膳食模式。采用 D3-creatine (D3Cr) 稀释法测量肌肉质量; 采用双能 x线骨密度仪 (DXA) 测量阑尾瘦体重 (ALM)。使用广义线性模型报告膳食模式的校正结果均值。使用多元线性回归模型确定宏量营养素与 D3Cr 肌肉质量和 DXA ALM 之间的关联。多变量模型校正了年龄、种族、临床部位、教育程度、抑郁、总能量摄入、身高和体脂百分比。 结果: 更加坚持西方饮食模式 (红肉、油炸食品和高脂乳制品的高因子负荷) 与较高的 D3Cr 肌肉质量相关 (p-趋势 = .026)。坚持健康饮食模式 (水果、蔬菜、全谷物和瘦肉的高因子负荷) 与 D3Cr 肌肉质量或 DXA ALM 无关。总蛋白 (β = 0.09，95% CI = 0.03，0.14) 和非乳蛋白 (β = 0.16，95% CI = 0.10，0.21) 与 D3Cr 肌肉质量呈正相关。非乳制品动物蛋白 (β = 0.06，95% CI = 0.002，0.11) 与 DXA ALM 呈正相关。与其他大量营养素的关联不一致。 结论: 非乳制品动物蛋白摄入量 (在西方饮食模式内且单独) 与老年男性 D3Cr 肌肉质量呈正相关。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Given the importance of habitual dietary protein intake, distribution patterns and dietary sources in the aetiology of age-related declines of muscle mass and function, the present study examined these factors as a function of sex and age in Irish adults aged 18-90 years comprising The National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). METHODS:In total, 1051 (males, n = 523; females, n = 528) undertook a 4-day semi-weighed food diary. Total, body mass relative intake and percentage contribution to total energy intake of dietary protein were determined in addition to protein distribution scores (PDS), as well as the contribution of food groups, animal- and plant-based foods to total protein intake. RESULTS:Total and relative protein intake [mean (SD)] were highest in those aged 18-35 years [96 (3) g day , 1.32 (0.40) g kg day ], with lower protein intakes with increasing age (i.e. in adults aged ≥65 years [82 (22) g, 1.15 (0.34) g kg day , P < 0.001 for both]. Differences in protein intake between age groups were more pronounced in males compared to females. Protein distribution followed a skewed pattern for all age groups [breakfast, 15 (10) g; lunch, 30 (15) g; dinner, 44 (17) g]. Animal-based foods were the dominant protein source within the diet [63% (11%) versus 37% (11%) plant protein, P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS:Protein intake and the number of meals reaching the purported threshold for maximising post-prandial anabolism were highest in young adults, and lower with increasing age. For main meals, breakfast provided the lowest quantity of protein across all age categories and may represent an opportunity for improving protein distribution, whereas, in older adults, increasing the number of meals reaching the anabolic threshold regardless of distribution pattern may be more appropriate.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) increases risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events. Periodic CRF assessment can have an important preventive function. OBJECTIVE:To develop a protocol-free method to estimate CRF in daily life based on heart rate (HR) and body acceleration measurements. METHODS:Acceleration and HR data were collected from 37 subjects (M=49%) while performing a standardized laboratory activity protocol (sitting, walking, running, cycling) and during a 5-days free-living monitoring period. CRF was determined by oxygen uptake (VO2max) during maximal exercise testing. A doubly-labeled water validated equation was used to predict total energy expenditure (TEE) from acceleration data. A fitness index was defined as the ratio between TEE and HR (TEE-pulse). Activity recognition techniques were used to process acceleration features and classify sedentary, ambulatory and other activity types. Regression equations based on TEE-pulse data from each activity type were developed to predict VO2max. RESULTS:TEE-pulse measured within each activity type of the laboratory protocol was highly correlated to VO2max (r from 0.74 to 0.91). Averaging the outcome of each activity-type specific equation based on TEE-pulse from the laboratory data led to accurate estimates of VO2max (RMSE: 300.0 mlO2/min or 10%). The difference between laboratory and free-living determined TEE-pulse was 3.7 ± 11% (r =0.85). The prediction method preserved the prediction accuracy when applied to free-living data (RMSE: 367 mlO2/min or 12%). CONCLUSIONS:Measurements of body acceleration and HR can be used to predict VO2max in daily life. Activity-specific prediction equations are needed to achieve highly accurate estimates of CRF.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Postprandial dyslipidemia is a common feature of insulin resistant states and contributes to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Recently, bile acids have been recognized beyond their emulsification properties as important signaling molecules that promote energy expenditure, improve insulin sensitivity, and lower fasting lipemia. While bile acid receptors have become novel pharmaceutical targets, their effects on postprandial lipid metabolism remain unclear. Here we investigated the potential role of bile acids in regulation of postprandial chylomicron production and triglyceride excursion. Approach and Results: Healthy C57BL/6 mice were given an intraduodenal infusion of taurocholic acid (TA) under fat-loaded conditions and circulating lipids were measured. Targeting of bile acid receptors was achieved with GW4064, a synthetic agonist to the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), and with deoxycholic acid (DCA), an activator of the Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5. TA, GW4064, and DCA treatments all lowered postprandial lipemia. FXR agonism also reduced intestinal triglyceride content and activity of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, involved in chylomicron assembly. Importantly, TA effects (but not DCA) were largely lost in FXR knockout mice. These bile acid effects are reminiscent of the anti-diabetic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). While the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 retained its ability to acutely lower postprandial lipemia during bile acid sequestration and FXR deficiency, it did raise hepatic expression of the rate limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. CONCLUSIONS:Bile acid signaling may be an important mechanism of controlling dietary lipid absorption and bile acid receptors may constitute novel targets for the treatment of postprandial dyslipidemia.