NMDA receptors are altered in the substantia nigra pars reticulata and their blockade ameliorates motor deficits in experimental parkinsonism.
- 作者列表："Sitzia G","Mantas I","Zhang X","Svenningsson P","Chergui K
:In Parkinson's disease (PD) reduced levels of dopamine (DA) in the striatum lead to an abnormal circuit activity of the basal ganglia and an increased output through the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) and the globus pallidus internal part. Synaptic inputs to the SNr shape its activity, however, the properties of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in this output nucleus of the basal ganglia in control and DA-depleted conditions are not fully elucidated. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and pharmacological tools, we examined alterations in glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the SNr of a mouse model of PD, i.e. mice with unilateral 6-OHDA lesion of DA neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, as compared to control mice. We found that AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated spontaneous and evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and eEPSCs) were not altered. The AMPA/NMDA ratio was significantly decreased in 6-OHDA-lesioned mice, suggesting an increased synaptic function of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in DA-depleted mice. The decay kinetics of NMDAR-eEPSCs were faster in 6-OHDA-lesioned mice, indicating a possible change in the subunit composition of synaptic NMDARs. In control mice NMDAR-eEPSCs were mediated by diheteromeric NMDARs made of GluN2A, GluN2B and GluN2D. In 6-OHDA-lesioned mice the function of diheteromeric NMDARs containing either GluN2B or GluN2D was dramatically decreased, whereas the function of diheteromeric NMDARs made of GluN2A was preserved. Microinjections of an NMDAR antagonist into the SNr of 6-OHDA-lesioned mice resulted in significant improvements in spontaneous locomotion. This study identifies novel alterations occurring at excitatory synapses in the basal ganglia output nucleus following DA depletion. An increased synaptic NMDAR function, due to an altered subunit composition, might contribute to hyperactivation of SNr neurons in the DA depleted state and to motor impairments in PD.
: 帕金森病 (PD) 患者多巴胺 (DA) 水平降低在纹状体中导致基底节的异常环路活动，并通过黑质网状部 (SNr) 和苍白球内部部分增加输出。SNr 的突触输入塑造了它的活性，然而，在控制和 DA 耗尽的条件下，基底节的这个输出核中的谷氨酸能突触传递的特性尚未完全阐明。使用全细胞膜片钳记录和药理学工具，我们检测了 PD 小鼠模型 SNr 中谷氨酸能突触传递的改变，即与对照组小鼠相比，黑质致密部 DA 神经元单侧 6-OHDA 病变的小鼠。我们发现 AMPA 受体 (AMPAR) 介导的自发和诱发的兴奋性突触后电流 (sEPSCs 和 eEPSCs) 没有改变。AMPA/NMDA 比值在 6-ohda 损伤小鼠中显著降低，提示 DA 耗竭小鼠 NMDA 受体 (NMDARs) 的突触功能增加。NMDAR-eEPSCs 的衰变动力学在 6-ohda 损伤小鼠中更快，表明突触 NMDARs 的亚基组成可能发生变化。在对照组小鼠中，NMDAR-eEPSCs 由 GluN2A 、 GluN2B 和 GluN2D 制成的二异基因 NMDARs 介导。在 6-ohda 损伤的小鼠中，含有 GluN2B 或 GluN2D 的二异聚 NMDARs 的功能显著降低，而由 GluN2A 制成的二异聚 NMDARs 的功能得以保留。将 NMDAR 拮抗剂微量注射到 6-ohda 损伤小鼠的 SNr 中，可显著改善自发运动。本研究确定了 DA 耗竭后基底节输出核兴奋性突触发生的新变化。突触 NMDAR 功能增加，由于亚基组成改变，可能导致 DA 耗尽状态下 SNr 神经元的过度激活和 PD 的运动损伤。
METHODS::Identifying disease-causing pathways and drugs that target them in Parkinson's disease (PD) has remained challenging. We uncovered a PD-relevant pathway in which the stress-regulated heterodimeric transcription complex CHOP/ATF4 induces the neuron prodeath protein Trib3 that in turn depletes the neuronal survival protein Parkin. Here we sought to determine whether the drug adaptaquin, which inhibits ATF4-dependent transcription, could suppress Trib3 induction and neuronal death in cellular and animal models of PD. Neuronal PC12 cells and ventral midbrain dopaminergic neurons were assessed in vitro for survival, transcription factor levels and Trib3 or Parkin expression after exposure to 6-hydroxydopamine or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium with or without adaptaquin co-treatment. 6-hydroxydopamine injection into the medial forebrain bundle was used to examine the effects of systemic adaptaquin on signaling, substantia nigra dopaminergic neuron survival and striatal projections as well as motor behavior. In both culture and animal models, adaptaquin suppressed elevation of ATF4 and/or CHOP and induction of Trib3 in response to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium and/or 6-hydroxydopamine. In culture, adaptaquin preserved Parkin levels, provided neuroprotection and preserved morphology. In the mouse model, adaptaquin treatment enhanced survival of dopaminergic neurons and substantially protected their striatal projections. It also significantly enhanced retention of nigrostriatal function. These findings define a novel pharmacological approach involving the drug adaptaquin, a selective modulator of hypoxic adaptation, for suppressing Parkin loss and neurodegeneration in toxin models of PD. As adaptaquin possesses an oxyquinoline backbone with known safety in humans, these findings provide a firm rationale for advancing it towards clinical evaluation in PD.
METHODS::Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by brain atrophy particularly in the striatum that produces motor impairment, and cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed including dysfunctions in neurotrophic support and calpain-overactivation, among others. Kinase D-interacting substrate of 220 kDa (Kidins220), also known as ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning (ARMS), is an essential mediator of neurotrophin signaling. In adult brain, Kidins220 presents two main isoforms that differ in their carboxy-terminal length and critical protein-protein interaction domains. These variants are generated through alternative terminal exon splicing of the conventional exon 32 (Kidins220-C32) and the recently identified exon 33 (Kidins220-C33). The lack of domains encoded by exon 32 involved in key neuronal functions, including those controlling neurotrophin pathways, pointed to Kidins220-C33 as a form detrimental for neurons. However, the functional role of Kidins220-C33 in neurodegeneration or other pathologies, including HD, has not been explored. In the present work, we discover an unexpected selective downregulation of Kidins220-C33, in the striatum of HD patients, as well as in the R6/1 HD mouse model starting at early symptomatic stages. These changes are C33-specific as Kidins220-C32 variant remains unchanged. We also find the early decrease in Kidins220-C33 levels takes place in neurons, suggesting an unanticipated neuroprotective role for this isoform. Finally, using ex vivo assays and primary neurons, we demonstrate that Kidins220-C33 is downregulated by mechanisms that depend on the activation of the protease calpain. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that calpain-mediated Kidins220-C33 proteolysis modulates onset and/or progression of HD.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Neuroinflammation has been recognized as an important factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). One of the most recognized pathways in mediating neuroinflammation is the prostaglandin E2-EP1 receptor pathway. OBJECTIVE:Here, we examined the efficacy of the selective EP1 antagonist ONO-8713 in limiting amyloid-β (Aβ), lesion volumes, and behavioral indexes in AD mouse models after ischemic stroke. METHODS:Transgenic APP/PS1, 3xTgAD, and wildtype (WT) mice were subjected to permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (pdMCAO) and sham surgeries. Functional outcomes, memory, anatomical outcomes, and Aβ concentrations were assessed 14 days after surgery. RESULTS:pdMCAO resulted in significant deterioration in functional and anatomical outcomes in the transgenic mice compared with the WT mice. No relevant differences were observed in the behavioral tests when comparing the ONO-8713 and vehicle-treated groups. Significantly lower cavitation (p = 0.0373) and percent tissue loss (p = 0.0247) were observed in APP/PS1 + ONO-8713 mice compared with the WT + ONO-8713 mice. However, the percent tissue injury was significantly higher in APP/PS1 + ONO-8713 mice compared with WT + ONO-8713 group (p = 0.0373). Percent tissue loss was also significantly lower in the 3xTgAD + ONO-8713 mice than in the WT + ONO-8713 mice (p = 0.0185). ONO-8713 treatment also attenuated cortical microgliosis in APP/PS1 mice as compared with the vehicle (p = 0.0079); however, no differences were observed in astrogliosis across the groups. Finally, APP/PS1 mice presented characteristic Aβ load in the cortex while 3xTgAD mice exhibited very low Aβ levels. CONCLUSION:In conclusion, under the experimental conditions, EP1 receptor antagonist ONO-8713 showed modest benefits on anatomical outcomes after stroke, mainly in APP/PS1 mice.