Repair of Achilles sleeve avulsion: a new transosseous suture technique.
- 作者列表："Yang YP","Wang DY","Wei LW","An N","Tao LY","Jiao C","Guo QW","Hu YL
BACKGROUND:Achilles sleeve avulsion usually occurs from pre-existing insertional Achilles tendinopathy, leaving a calcific spur at the insertional site. The purpose of this study was to introduce a new technique using the spur base on the insertional site to drill the suture tunnel to repair Achilles sleeve avulsion. METHODS:In total, 11 patients diagnosed with Achilles sleeve avulsion underwent this new surgical technique and were followed for a mean time of 40 months. Clinical outcomes were measured using the visual analog scale (VAS), American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) score, Tegner score, and time taken to return to activities. Preoperative and postoperative MRI, the ability to perform heel rise, and complications were also evaluated. RESULTS:All cases (11/11) had insertional Achilles tendinopathy with calcific spur formation on the tendon's insertion. At final follow-up, the average VAS score improved from 5.3 to 0.1, AOFAS score improved from 44.8 to 97.9, VISA-A score improved from 23.6 to 96.6, and Tegner score improved from 0.9 to 4.9. Tendinopathy symptoms were eliminated. Patients returned to daily activities, work, and sports 3.5 months, 2.8 months, and 12.3months after operation, respectively. Patients took an average of 18.1 weeks after operation to perform the single heel rise test. No severe complications such as infection and rerupture were observed. CONCLUSION:Our new transosseous suture technique is a promising alternative option in treating Achilles sleeve avulsion. More cases and longer follow up are needed in order to find the best reconstructive option for this pathology. LEVELS OF EVIDENCE:Level IV.
背景: 跟腱袖撕脱通常发生于预先存在的插入性跟腱病，在插入部位留下钙化性骨刺。本研究的目的是介绍一种利用插入部位的骨刺基底钻缝合隧道修复跟腱袖撕脱的新技术。 方法: 11 例诊断为跟腱袖状撕脱伤的患者接受了这种新的手术技术，平均随访时间为 40 个月。采用视觉模拟量表 (VAS) 、美国矫形足踝学会 (AOFAS) 评分、维多利亚运动评估研究所-阿基里斯 (VISA-A) 评分测量临床结局,tegner 评分，以及返回活动所用的时间。还评估了术前和术后 MRI 、执行足跟上升的能力以及并发症。 结果: 所有病例 (11/11) 均有插入性跟腱病，肌腱插入处有钙化骨刺形成。末次随访时平均 VAS 评分从 5.3 提高到 0.1，AOFAS 评分从 44.8 提高到 97.9，VISA-A 评分从 23.6 提高到 96.6,tegner 评分从 0.9 分提高到 4.9 分。肌腱病症状消除。患者分别于术后 3.5 个月、 2.8 个月和 12.3 个月恢复日常活动、工作和运动。患者术后平均 18.1 周进行单跟抬高试验。无感染、再破裂等严重并发症。 结论: 我们新的经骨缝合技术是治疗跟腱袖状撕脱伤的一种很有前途的替代选择。需要更多的病例和更长的随访，以便为这种病理找到最佳的重建选择。 证据级别: IV 级。
METHODS:Purpose To determine outcomes of transphyseal ACL reconstruction using a living parental hamstring tendon allograft in a consecutive series of 100 children. Methods One hundred consecutive juveniles undergoing ACL reconstruction with a living parental hamstring allograft were recruited prospectively and reviewed 2 years after ACL reconstruction with IKDC Knee Ligament Evaluation, and KT1000 instrumented laxity testing. Skeletally immature participants obtained annual radiographs until skeletal maturity, and long leg alignment radiographs at 2 years. Radiographic Posterior tibial slope was recorded. Results Of 100 juveniles, the median age was 14 years (range 8–16) and 68% male. At surgery, 30 juveniles were graded Tanner 1 or 2, 21 were Tanner 3 and 49 were Tanner 4 or 5. There were no cases of iatrogenic physeal injury or leg length discrepancy on long leg radiographs at 2 years, despite a median increase in height of 8 cm. Twelve patients had an ACL graft rupture and 9 had a contralateral ACL injury. Of those without further ACL injury, 82% returned to competitive sports, IKDC ligament evaluation was normal in 52% and nearly normal in 48%. The median side to side difference on manual maximum testing with the KT1000 was 2 mm (range − 1 to 5). A radiographic PTS of 12° or more was observed in 49%. Conclusions ACL reconstruction in the juvenile with living parental hamstring tendon allograft is a viable procedure associated with excellent clinical stability, patient-reported outcomes and return to sport over 2 years. Further ACL injury to the reconstructed and the contralateral knee remains a significant risk, with identical prevalence observed between the reconstructed and contralateral ACL between 12 and 24 months after surgery. Level of evidence III (Cohort Study).
METHODS:Purpose The purpose of the study was to investigate the biomechanics of walking and of the knee joint in the acute phase of ACL injury. Methods We examined 18 patients with acute ACL injuries and 20 healthy adults as controls. The biomechanics of the knee joint and of walking was assessed by 5 inertial sensors fixed with special cuffs to the lower back, the lower third of the thigh, and the lower third of the shank of the right and left legs. The movements and temporal characteristics were recorded while the subject was walking 10 m at a comfortable pace. Based on the results of examination, the patients were divided into two groups: with severe function impairment (6 patients) and with moderate function impairment (12 patients). Results It was found that in the first days post-trauma, not only the knee function was reduced, but the function of the entire lower limb as well. This led to a functional asymmetry. The kinematics of movements in the joints changed in accordance with slower walking. The walking became not only slower, but it was also associated with a decreased impact load in the weight acceptance phase. At later dates, the functional impairments were less pronounced. The total range of flexion motion did not exceed 20 degrees in the first group and 55 degrees in the second one. The injured joint developed functional immobilization within the first days post-injury. This was a guarding response by additional muscle strain to prevent unusual and limit physiological movements in the knee joint. The movements in the knee joint while walking were of small amplitude, rocking, and occurred only under load. The amplitude of the main flexion in the swing phase was reduced. Conclusion The stage of an ACL injury should be assessed not only based on the time post-trauma, but also taking account of the functional parameter—the knee range of flexion while walking. According to our findings, the only factor that had influenced the functional condition of the KJ was the duration of joint immobilization after trauma.
METHODS:Purpose Numerous techniques have been described for the tibial-sided graft preparation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The use of less suture material for graft preparation is thought to improve ingrowth and to reduce the risk for infection. At the same time, the suture construct should be strong enough to resist the surgeon’s pull during tensioning of the transplant. Methods In total, 39 fresh-frozen procine deep flexor tendons were used and prepared as four-strand grafts. In the three-suture group ( n = 19), graft preparation was performed using three tibial-sided sutures, with each tendon end sutured separately. In the one-suture group ( n = 20), a modified graft preparation using only one tibial-sided suture was applied. Each sample underwent load-to-failure testing ( N _max) after cyclic pre-loading. To estimate intraoperative tension forces acting on the tibial-sided suture constructs, the maximal tension force of 26 volunteers on such a construct was measured using a load cell. Results The biomechanical testing of the two different suture constructs showed a significantly higher load-to-failure for the three-suture group (711 N ± 91 N) compared to the one-suture group (347 N ± 24 N) ( p = 0.0001). In both groups, the mode of failure was a tear of the suture in all samples. A failure of the suture–tendon interface was not observed in any case. The median maximal tension force on the construct applied by the 26 volunteers was 134 N (range 73–182 N). Conclusion The presented single-suture tendon graft preparation resisted to smaller failure loads than the conventional three-suture technique. However, no failures in the suture–tendon interface were seen and the failure loads observed were far beyond the tension forces that can be expected intraoperatively. Hence, the single-suture graft preparation technique may be a valuable alternative to the conventional technique.