音乐对伴和不伴 ADHD 的青春期前儿童阅读理解的对比效应。
- 作者列表："Madjar N","Gazoli R","Manor I","Shoval G
Children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are advised to study in quiet settings; yet, many professionals assert that environments devoid of external stimulus, are often unnecessary to facilitate optimal learning conditions. Empirical controlled trials examining this assertion are scarce. This study explored whether music improves reading performance of preadolescents with ADHD compared with typically developed (TD) peers, and its correlation with changes in heart rate variability (HRV), an autonomic nervous system indicator. After a pilot phase (N = 20; age = 12.05), additional independent sample of ADHD (n = 25; age = 10.28) and TD (n = 25; age = 10.44) preadolescents completed reading tasks under four conditions: without background music, with calm music without lyrics, calm music with lyrics, and rhythmic music with lyrics. Reading comprehension and mean-levels of HRV changes (before and during each task) were assessed using validated instruments. Reading comprehension significantly improved under the music conditions in ADHD group and deteriorated among TD. Differences in HRV changes were significant between groups, and explained reading performance. These findings suggest that music may improve attentive skills of preadolescents with ADHD, but not TD, and urge the need to identify an optimal fit between individual and contextual characteristics.
注意缺陷/多动障碍 (ADHD) 的儿童和青少年被建议在安静的环境中学习; 然而，许多专业人士断言，没有外部刺激的环境,通常不需要促进最佳学习条件。检查这一断言的经验对照试验很少。本研究探讨了与典型发育 (TD) 同龄人相比，音乐是否改善了 ADHD 青少年的阅读表现，及其与自主神经系统指标心率变异性 (HRV) 变化的相关性。在试验阶段 (N = 20; 年龄 = 12.05) 后，ADHD (n = 25; 年龄 = 10.28) 和 TD (n = 25; 年龄 = 10.44) 的额外独立样本青春期前在四个条件下完成阅读任务: 没有背景音乐，有平静的音乐没有歌词,平静的音乐与歌词，有节奏的音乐与歌词。使用经验证的仪器评估阅读理解和 HRV 变化的平均水平 (在每个任务之前和期间)。阅读理解在 ADHD 组的音乐条件下显著提高，在 TD 中恶化。HRV 变化在组间差异显著，并解释了阅读表现。这些发现表明，音乐可能提高 ADHD 青春期前青少年的注意力技能，但不能提高 TD，并敦促需要确定个体和情境特征之间的最佳契合度。
METHODS:Abstract Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychosocially impairing and cost-intensive mental disorder, with first symptoms occurring in early childhood. It can usually be diagnosed reliably at preschool age. Early detection of children with ADHD symptoms and an early, age-appropriate treatment are needed in order to reduce symptoms, prevent secondary problems and enable a better school start. Despite existing ADHD treatment research and guideline recommendations for the treatment of ADHD in preschool children, there is still a need to optimise individualised treatment strategies in order to improve outcomes. Therefore, the ESCApreschool study (Evidence-Based, Stepped Care of ADHD in Preschool Children aged 3 years and 0 months to 6 years and 11 months of age (3;0 to 6;11 years) addresses the treatment of 3–6-year-old preschool children with elevated ADHD symptoms within a large multicentre trial. The study aims to investigate the efficacy of an individualised stepwise-intensifying treatment programme. Methods The target sample size of ESCApreschool is 200 children (boys and girls) aged 3;0 to 6;11 years with an ADHD diagnosis according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) or a diagnosis of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) plus additional substantial ADHD symptoms. The first step of the adaptive, stepped care design used in ESCApreschool consists of a telephone-assisted self-help (TASH) intervention for parents. Participants are randomised to either the TASH group or a waiting control group. The treatment in step 2 depends on the outcome of step 1: TASH responders without significant residual ADHD/ODD symptoms receive booster sessions of TASH. Partial or non-responders of step 1 are randomised again to either parent management and preschool teacher training or treatment as usual. Discussion The ESCApreschool trial aims to improve knowledge about individualised treatment strategies for preschool children with ADHD following an adaptive stepped care approach, and to provide a scientific basis for individualised medicine for preschool children with ADHD in routine clinical care. Trial registration The trial was registered at the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) as a Current Controlled Trial under DRKS00008971 on 1 October 2015. This manuscript is based on protocol version 3 (14 October 2016).
METHODS:Prefrontal volume reductions commonly are demonstrated in ADHD, but the literature examining prefrontal volume in reading disorders (RD) is scant despite their also having executive functioning (EF) deficits. Furthermore, only a few anatomical studies have examined the frontal lobes in comorbid RD/ADHD, though they have EF deficits similar to RD and ADHD. Hence, we examined frontal gyri volume in children with RD, ADHD, RD/ADHD and controls, as well as their relationship to EF for gyri found to differ between groups. We found right inferior frontal (RIF) volume was smaller in ADHD, and smaller volume was related to worse behavioral regulation. Left superior frontal (LSF) volume was larger in RD than ADHD, and its size was negatively related to basic reading ability. Left middle frontal (LMF) volume was largest in RD/ADHD overall. Further, its volume was not related to basic reading nor behavioral regulation but was related to worse attentional control, suggesting some specificity in its EF relationship. When examining hypotheses on the etiology of RD/ADHD, RD/ADHD was commensurate with ADHD in RIF volume and both RD and ADHD in LSF volume (being midway between the groups), consistent with the common etiology hypothesis. Nevertheless, they also had an additional gyrus affected: LMF, consistent with the cognitive subtype hypothesis in its specificity to RD/ADHD. The few other frontal aMRI studies on RD/ADHD supported both hypotheses as well. Given this, future research should continue to focus on frontal morphology in its endeavors to find neurobiological contributors to the comorbidity between RD and ADHD.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Mechanistic endophenotypes can inform process models of psychopathology and aid interpretation of genetic risk factors. Smaller total brain and subcortical volumes are associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and provide clues to its development. This study evaluates whether common genetic risk for ADHD is associated with total brain volume (TBV) and hypothesized subcortical structures in children. METHODS:Children 7-15 years old were recruited for a case-control study (N = 312, N = 199 ADHD). Children were assessed with a multi-informant, best-estimate diagnostic procedure and motion-corrected MRI measured brain volumes. Polygenic scores were computed based on discovery data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (N = 19 099 ADHD, N = 34 194 controls) and the ENIGMA + CHARGE consortium (N = 26 577). RESULTS:ADHD was associated with smaller TBV, and altered volumes of caudate, cerebellum, putamen, and thalamus after adjustment for TBV; however, effects were larger and statistically reliable only in boys. TBV was associated with an ADHD polygenic score [β = -0.147 (-0.27 to -0.03)], and mediated a small proportion of the effect of polygenic risk on ADHD diagnosis (average ACME = 0.0087, p = 0.012). This finding was stronger in boys (average ACME = 0.019, p = 0.008). In addition, we confirm genetic variation associated with whole brain volume, via an intracranial volume polygenic score. CONCLUSION:Common genetic risk for ADHD is not expressed primarily as developmental alterations in subcortical brain volumes, but appears to alter brain development in other ways, as evidenced by TBV differences. This is among the first demonstrations of this effect using molecular genetic data. Potential sex differences in these effects warrant further examination.