- 作者列表："Sweet K
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare and aggressive hematologic malignancy with historically poor outcomes. It typically manifests as asymptomatic skin lesions and cytopenias, which result from bone marrow involvement. Less commonly, it will present in lymph nodes or visceral organs as well. Although rare, BPDCN has been discussed more frequently in recent years as new drugs have been developed that could be effective at treating this disease. RECENT FINDINGS:Until recently, treatment for BPDCN commonly included intensive chemotherapy regimens, which are generally reserved for management of acute myeloid leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, in 2018 tagraxofusp (SL-401) was approved as the only treatment specifically indicated for BPDCN. Additional clinical trials are ongoing evaluating the efficacy of newer agents, which could potentially further improve the long-term outcomes for patients with BPDCN. SUMMARY:This manuscript reviews the diagnosis, manifestations and treatment of BPDCN.
综述目的: 母细胞性浆细胞样树突状细胞肿瘤 (BPDCN) 是一种罕见的侵袭性血液系统恶性肿瘤，历史上预后较差。它通常表现为无症状的皮肤病变和血细胞减少，这是由于骨髓受累所致。不太常见的是，它也会出现在淋巴结或内脏器官中。虽然罕见，但近年来随着新药的开发，BPDCN的讨论越来越频繁，可以有效治疗这种疾病。 最近的发现: 直到最近，BPDCN的治疗通常包括强化化疗方案，这些方案通常保留用于急性髓系白血病或急性淋巴细胞白血病的治疗。然而，2018 年，tagraxofusp (SL-401) 被批准为唯一专门用于BPDCN的治疗。其他临床试验正在评估新药物的疗效，这可能进一步改善BPDCN患者的长期预后。 小结: 本稿件对BPDCN的诊断、表现和治疗进行综述。
METHODS::Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome (BRBNS) is an extremely rare venous malformation that often manifests as multiple haemangioma-like lesions in the skin and gastrointestinal tract. The drug sirolimus plays a key role in the signalling pathway of angiogenesis and subsequent development of BRBNS and its use has been described in several case reports. We present a case series of four patients with BRBNS who exhibited good treatment response to sirolimus. All four patients were administered oral sirolimus at doses of 1.0-1.5 mg/m2 /day with a target drug level of 5-10 ng/mL and median treatment duration of 20 months. All patients had a reduction in the size of the lesions and a normalization of coagulopathy with tolerable drug adverse reactions at follow-up. Sirolimus may be effective and safe in paediatric patients with BRBNS. Further prospective studies are suggested to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of this drug.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with common dermatologic and nondermatologic diseases. Although HPV vaccines are well established as preventive measures for genital warts and cervical neoplasia, their use as therapeutic agents deserves greater attention. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the use of HPV vaccine(s) as a treatment modality for cutaneous and/or mucosal disease. METHODS:A primary literature search using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was conducted in January 2019 by using the PubMed and Cochrane databases. RESULTS:A total of 63 articles with 4439 patients were included. The majority of patients with cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas were successfully treated with HPV vaccination. Preliminary data on patients with pre-existing anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is promising. LIMITATIONS:This review was limited by the lack of controls, patients' previous HPV vaccination status, and publication bias. CONCLUSION:The commercially available three-dose, quadrivalent HPV vaccine is a potential therapeutic option for the treatment of cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas. Noncommercially available HPV vaccines demonstrate therapeutic response for treating anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. The vaccine's efficacy as an adjunct therapy for HPV-associated cutaneous and/or mucosal disease warrants further exploration.
METHODS::Our understanding of melanoma precursors and progression to melanoma has developed as a result of advances in the field of molecular diagnostics. We now better understand the potential for genetic heterogeneity within a single lesion. Combined tumors can pose a diagnostic challenge when deciding the line between benign and malignant, which in turn has direct implications for patient management. Primary cilia (PC) are ubiquitous sensory organelles that have essential functions in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and development. The ciliation index (percentage of ciliated melanocytes) has been shown to reliably differentiate melanoma, which fail to ciliate, from melanocytic nevi, which retain PC. We therefore analyzed the potential for using the ciliation index to differentiate benign and malignant components in combined melanocytic lesions. We collected patient samples (n = 10) of unequivocal combined lesions with both melanoma and associated nevus components. Melanocytes were highlighted with SOX10 and costained with gamma-Tubulin and acetylated alpha-Tubulin to highlight the basal body and cilium, respectively. The number of melanocytes retaining cilia under high-power microscopy was examined. The melanoma component had average of 4% ciliation (SD: 7%), whereas the associated nevus component was significantly higher with 59% ciliation (SD: 17%). These data show that PC may be a reliable means of distinguishing benign from malignant components within a single tumor. The ciliation index may be a helpful tool in distinguishing challenging cases of combined lesions of melanoma in situ with a dermal nevus component from invasive melanoma, thus promoting improved staging and clinical management.