BRAF V600E mutational load as a prognosis biomarker in malignant melanoma.
- 作者列表："Sevilla A","Morales MC","Ezkurra PA","Rasero J","Velasco V","Cancho-Galan G","Sánchez-Diez A","Mujika K","Penas C","Smith I","Asumendi A","Cortés JM","Boyano MD","Alonso S
:Analyzing the mutational load of driver mutations in melanoma could provide valuable information regarding its progression. We aimed at analyzing the heterogeneity of mutational load of BRAF V600E in biopsies of melanoma patients of different stages, and investigating its potential as a prognosis factor. Mutational load of BRAF V600E was analyzed by digital PCR in 78 biopsies of melanoma patients of different stages and 10 nevi. The BRAF V600E load was compared among biopsies of different stages. Results showed a great variability in the load of V600E (0%-81%). Interestingly, we observed a significant difference in the load of V600E between the early and late melanoma stages, in the sense of an inverse correlation between BRAF V600E mutational load and melanoma progression. In addition, a machine learning approach showed that the mutational load of BRAF V600E could be a good predictor of metastasis in stage II patients. Our results suggest that BRAF V600E is a promising biomarker of prognosis in stage II patients.
: 分析黑色素瘤中驱动突变的突变负荷可以提供关于其进展的有价值的信息。我们旨在分析不同阶段黑色素瘤患者活检中BRAF V600E突变负荷的异质性，并研究其作为预后因素的潜力。对 78 例不同分期的黑色素瘤患者和 10 例痣进行了BRAF V600E突变负荷的数字PCR分析。比较不同分期活检的BRAF V600E负荷。结果显示V600E负荷有很大的变异性 (0%-81%)。有趣的是，我们观察到早期和晚期黑色素瘤阶段的V600E负荷存在显著差异，BRAF V600E突变负荷与黑色素瘤进展呈负相关。此外，机器学习方法表明，BRAF V600E的突变负荷可能是II期患者转移的良好预测因子。我们的结果表明，BRAF V600E是II期患者预后的一个有前途的生物标志物。
METHODS::Blue rubber bleb naevus syndrome (BRBNS) is an extremely rare venous malformation that often manifests as multiple haemangioma-like lesions in the skin and gastrointestinal tract. The drug sirolimus plays a key role in the signalling pathway of angiogenesis and subsequent development of BRBNS and its use has been described in several case reports. We present a case series of four patients with BRBNS who exhibited good treatment response to sirolimus. All four patients were administered oral sirolimus at doses of 1.0-1.5 mg/m2 /day with a target drug level of 5-10 ng/mL and median treatment duration of 20 months. All patients had a reduction in the size of the lesions and a normalization of coagulopathy with tolerable drug adverse reactions at follow-up. Sirolimus may be effective and safe in paediatric patients with BRBNS. Further prospective studies are suggested to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of this drug.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with common dermatologic and nondermatologic diseases. Although HPV vaccines are well established as preventive measures for genital warts and cervical neoplasia, their use as therapeutic agents deserves greater attention. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the use of HPV vaccine(s) as a treatment modality for cutaneous and/or mucosal disease. METHODS:A primary literature search using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was conducted in January 2019 by using the PubMed and Cochrane databases. RESULTS:A total of 63 articles with 4439 patients were included. The majority of patients with cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas were successfully treated with HPV vaccination. Preliminary data on patients with pre-existing anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is promising. LIMITATIONS:This review was limited by the lack of controls, patients' previous HPV vaccination status, and publication bias. CONCLUSION:The commercially available three-dose, quadrivalent HPV vaccine is a potential therapeutic option for the treatment of cutaneous warts, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomas. Noncommercially available HPV vaccines demonstrate therapeutic response for treating anogenital warts, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, anal intraepithelial neoplasia, and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. The vaccine's efficacy as an adjunct therapy for HPV-associated cutaneous and/or mucosal disease warrants further exploration.
METHODS::Our understanding of melanoma precursors and progression to melanoma has developed as a result of advances in the field of molecular diagnostics. We now better understand the potential for genetic heterogeneity within a single lesion. Combined tumors can pose a diagnostic challenge when deciding the line between benign and malignant, which in turn has direct implications for patient management. Primary cilia (PC) are ubiquitous sensory organelles that have essential functions in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and development. The ciliation index (percentage of ciliated melanocytes) has been shown to reliably differentiate melanoma, which fail to ciliate, from melanocytic nevi, which retain PC. We therefore analyzed the potential for using the ciliation index to differentiate benign and malignant components in combined melanocytic lesions. We collected patient samples (n = 10) of unequivocal combined lesions with both melanoma and associated nevus components. Melanocytes were highlighted with SOX10 and costained with gamma-Tubulin and acetylated alpha-Tubulin to highlight the basal body and cilium, respectively. The number of melanocytes retaining cilia under high-power microscopy was examined. The melanoma component had average of 4% ciliation (SD: 7%), whereas the associated nevus component was significantly higher with 59% ciliation (SD: 17%). These data show that PC may be a reliable means of distinguishing benign from malignant components within a single tumor. The ciliation index may be a helpful tool in distinguishing challenging cases of combined lesions of melanoma in situ with a dermal nevus component from invasive melanoma, thus promoting improved staging and clinical management.