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COVID-19, Australia: Epidemiology Report 19 (Fortnightly reporting period ending 21 June 2020).

新型冠状病毒肺炎,澳大利亚: 流行病学报告 19 (每两周报告期 21 六月至 2020 年).

  • 影响因子:0
  • DOI:10.33321/cdi.2020.44.54
  • 作者列表:"COVID-19 National Incident Room Surveillance Team.
  • 发表时间:2020-06-29
Abstract

:Notified cases of COVID-19 and associated deaths reported to the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) to 21 June 2020. Confirmed cases in Australia notified up to 7 June 2020: notifications = 7,491; deaths = 102. The incidence of COVID-19 has markedly reduced since a peak in mid-March. A combination of early case identification, physical distancing, public health measures and a reduction in international travel have been effective in slowing the spread of disease in Australia. Of the 215 cases notified between 8 and 21 June, 75% (163 cases) were notified from Victoria. Most of these cases were acquired locally. In contrast, cases notified from other states (NSW, Qld and WA) over this period were mostly overseas-acquired. Of locally-acquired cases in Victoria in this period, 51% were associated with contacts of a confirmed case or in a known outbreak, while 49% were unable to be linked to another case or were under investigation at the time of reporting. There are several clusters across a range of settings, including extended families, hotel quarantine facilities and a retail store, with most cases limited in geographic spread to a number of Local Government Areas around Melbourne. In response, the Victorian Government has re-introduced restrictions for household and outdoor gatherings, has delayed plans to ease other restrictions and has implemented enhanced public health response activities, particularly with regard to testing and contact tracing. A small proportion of overall cases have experienced severe disease, requiring hospitalisation or intensive care, with some fatalities. The crude case fatality rate amongst Australian cases is 1.4%. People who are older and have one or more comorbidities are more likely to experience severe disease. The highest rate of COVID-19 continues to be among people aged 65-79 years. Three-quarters of all cases in this age group have been associated with overseas travel, including several outbreaks linked to cruise ships. The lowest rate of disease is in children under 18 years, a pattern reflected in international reports. Internationally, as of 21 June 2020, the largest numbers of both cases and deaths have been reported in the United States. Of the confirmed cases reported globally, the case fatality rate is approximately 5.3%. Other countries in the Americas region, such as Brazil and Chile, are seeing rapid growth in case numbers. Case numbers in Europe remain relatively steady, while there is significant growth in the South East Asia region, including in India and Bangladesh. Reported cases are increasing in Africa, although the numbers are much smaller. In the Pacific region there are few new cases reported daily.

摘要

: 向国家法定传染病监测系统 (NNDSS) 报告到 2020 年 6 月 21 日的新型冠状病毒肺炎和相关死亡病例。截至 2020 年 6 月 7 日澳大利亚的确诊病例: 通知 = 7,491; 死亡 = 102。自 3 月中旬达到高峰以来,新型冠状病毒肺炎的发病率明显下降。结合早期病例识别、身体距离、公共卫生措施和减少国际旅行,有效减缓了澳大利亚疾病的传播。在 6 月 8 日至 21 日期间通知的 215 起案件中,维多利亚州通知了 75% 起 (163 起)。其中大多数病例是在当地获得的。相比之下,在此期间从其他州 (NSW、Qld和WA) 通知的病例大多是海外收购的。在此期间维多利亚州本地获得的病例中,51% 与确诊病例或已知疫情的接触者有关,而 49% 在报告时无法与另一个案件联系或正在调查。在一系列环境中有几个集群,包括大家庭、酒店检疫设施和零售店,大多数情况下地理范围有限,蔓延到墨尔本周围的一些地方政府地区。作为回应,维多利亚州政府重新引入了对家庭和户外聚会的限制,推迟了放松其他限制的计划,并实施了强化公共卫生应对活动,特别是在测试和接触者追踪方面。一小部分病例经历了严重的疾病,需要住院或重症监护,并有一些死亡。澳大利亚病例的粗病死率为 1.4%。年龄较大且有一种或多种合并症的人更有可能经历严重的疾病。65 至 79 岁的人仍然是新型冠状病毒肺炎最高的人群。这个年龄组中四分之三的病例与海外旅行有关,包括与游轮有关的几次爆发。发病率最低的是 18 岁以下的儿童,这一模式反映在国际报告中。在国际上,截至 2020 年 6 月 21 日,美国报告的病例和死亡人数最多。在全球报告的确诊病例中,病死率约为 5.3%。美洲地区的其他国家,如巴西和智利,案件数量正在快速增长。欧洲的病例数保持相对稳定,而东南亚地区,包括印度和孟加拉国有显著增长。非洲报告的病例正在增加,尽管数量要少得多。在太平洋地区,每天报告的新病例很少。

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呼吸道感染方向

呼吸道感染分为上呼吸道感染与下呼吸道感染。上呼吸道感染是指自鼻腔至喉部之间的急性炎症的总称,是最常见的感染性疾病。下呼吸道感染是最常见的感染性疾患,治疗时必须明确引起感染的病原体以选择有效的抗生素。

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