The challenges and considerations of community-based preparedness at the onset of COVID-19 outbreak in Iran, 2020.
- 作者列表："Moradzadeh R
:COVID-19 as an emerging disease has spread to 183 countries and territories worldwide as of 20 March 2020. The first COVID-19 case (i.e. the index case) in Iran was observed in the city of Qom on 19 February 2020. One of the cities of Markazi Province is Delijan, which shares a border with Qom. Consequently, COVID-19 has quickly spread in this city because a large population commutes daily between the two cities. This study aimed to report the challenges and considerations of community-based preparedness at the onset of COVID-19 outbreak in a city of Iran in 2020.
: 截至 2020 年 3 月 20 日，新型冠状病毒肺炎作为一种新出现的疾病已蔓延至全球 183 个国家和地区。第一个新型冠状病毒肺炎案例 (指数病例) 在伊朗的Qom市于 2020 年 2 月 19 日观察到。马卡齐省的一个城市是迪利詹，它与库姆接壤。因此，新型冠状病毒肺炎在这个城市迅速蔓延，因为大量人口每天往返于两个城市之间。本研究旨在报告 2020 年伊朗某城市爆发新型冠状病毒肺炎时社区准备工作面临的挑战和考虑。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.