School closure and management practices during coronavirus outbreaks including COVID-19: a rapid systematic review.
- 作者列表："Viner RM","Russell SJ","Croker H","Packer J","Ward J","Stansfield C","Mytton O","Bonell C","Booy R
:In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, 107 countries had implemented national school closures by March 18, 2020. It is unknown whether school measures are effective in coronavirus outbreaks (eg, due to severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS], Middle East respiratory syndrome, or COVID-19). We undertook a systematic review by searching three electronic databases to identify what is known about the effectiveness of school closures and other school social distancing practices during coronavirus outbreaks. We included 16 of 616 identified articles. School closures were deployed rapidly across mainland China and Hong Kong for COVID-19. However, there are no data on the relative contribution of school closures to transmission control. Data from the SARS outbreak in mainland China, Hong Kong, and Singapore suggest that school closures did not contribute to the control of the epidemic. Modelling studies of SARS produced conflicting results. Recent modelling studies of COVID-19 predict that school closures alone would prevent only 2-4% of deaths, much less than other social distancing interventions. Policy makers need to be aware of the equivocal evidence when considering school closures for COVID-19, and that combinations of social distancing measures should be considered. Other less disruptive social distancing interventions in schools require further consideration if restrictive social distancing policies are implemented for long periods.
为应对冠状病毒疾病 2019 (新型冠状病毒肺炎) 大流行，到 2020 年 3 月 18 日，已有 107 个国家关闭了全国学校。目前还不清楚学校的措施在冠状病毒爆发 (例如，由于严重急性呼吸综合征传染性非典型肺炎]，中东呼吸综合征或新型冠状病毒肺炎) 方面是否有效。我们通过检索三个电子数据库进行了系统综述，以确定冠状病毒爆发期间学校关闭和其他学校社会疏远做法的有效性。我们纳入了 616 篇确定的文章中的 16 篇。学校关闭在中国内地和香港迅速展开，以新型冠状病毒肺炎。然而，没有关于学校关闭对传播控制的相对贡献的数据。数据从传染性非典型肺炎爆发在中国大陆、香港和新加坡建议学校关闭无助于控制这一流行病.传染性非典型肺炎的建模研究产生了相互矛盾的结果。最近对新型冠状病毒肺炎的模拟研究预测，仅关闭学校就只能防止 2-4% 的死亡，远低于其他社会疏远干预措施。政策制定者在考虑新型冠状病毒肺炎关闭学校时需要意识到模棱两可的证据，并且应该考虑社会疏远措施的组合。如果长期实施限制性社会疏远政策，学校中其他破坏性较小的社会疏远干预需要进一步考虑。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.