- 作者列表："Luzi L","Radaelli MG
AIMS:Analyze the relationship between obesity and influenza. METHODS:Basal hormone milieu, defective response of both innate and adaptive immune system and sedentariness are major determinants in the severity of influenza viral infection in obese patients. Being overweight not only increases the risk of infection and of complications for the single obese person, but a large prevalence of obese individuals within the population might increase the chance of appearance of more virulent viral strain, prolongs the virus shedding throughout the total population and eventually might increase overall mortality rate of an influenza pandemic. RESULTS:Waiting for the development of a vaccination against COVID-19, isolation of positive cases and social distancing are the primary interventions. Nonetheless, evidence from previous influenza pandemics suggests the following interventions aimed at improving immune response: (1) lose weight with a mild caloric restriction; (2) include AMPK activators and PPAR gamma activators in the drug treatment for obesity associated with diabetes; and (3) practice mild-to-moderate physical exercise. CONCLUSIONS:Due to prolonged viral shedding, quarantine in obese subjects should likely be longer than normal weight individuals.
目的: 分析肥胖与流感的关系。 方法: 基础激素环境、固有免疫和适应性免疫系统的缺陷反应以及镇静是肥胖患者流感病毒感染严重程度的主要决定因素。超重不仅会增加单一肥胖者感染和并发症的风险，而且人群中肥胖个体的大量流行可能会增加出现毒性更强的病毒株的机会，延长病毒在整个人口中的脱落，最终可能会增加流感大流行的总体死亡率。 结果: 等待新型冠状病毒肺炎疫苗接种的发展，阳性病例的隔离和社会疏远是主要的干预措施。尽管如此，以往流感大流行的证据表明，以下干预措施旨在改善免疫反应 :( 1) 轻度热量限制减肥; (2) 将AMPK激活剂和PPAR γ 激活剂纳入糖尿病相关肥胖的药物治疗中; 以及 (3) 练习轻中度体育锻炼。 结论: 由于长期病毒脱落，肥胖受试者的检疫可能比正常体重个体更长。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.