- 作者列表："Wang H","Tang X","Fan H","Luo Y","Song Y","Xu Y","Chen Y
:The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019, a new human infectious disease. While fever, cough, and respiratory distress are typical first symptoms, a fraction of those affected present instead with neurological symptoms suggestive of central nervous system compromise. This review summarizes the potential contribution of coronavirus disease 2019 to hemorrhagic stroke in the elderly and proposes possible mechanisms. Reports show that the most affected patients have underlying chronic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes, which are two key risk factors for hemorrhagic stroke. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is the main host cell surface receptor interacting with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike glycoprotein to allow viral entry and infection. We speculate that ensuing downregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression may compound the risk conferred by pre-existing comorbidities and critically influence the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic stroke by elevating blood pressure and impairing cerebrovascular endothelial function. Additionally, both age- and/or disease-related immune dysfunction and enhanced catecholamine release secondary to anxiety and stress may also aggravate central nervous system symptoms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Thus, assessment of systemic inflammatory biomarkers and tight control of hemodynamic parameters upon admission are crucial to minimize mortality and morbidity in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with central nervous system symptoms suggestive of incipient stroke.
新型新型冠状病毒是一种新型人类传染病冠状病毒 2019 的病原体。虽然发热、咳嗽和呼吸窘迫是典型的首发症状，但一小部分受累者出现提示中枢神经系统受损的神经系统症状。本综述总结了冠状病毒疾病 2019 对老年人出血性卒中的潜在贡献，并提出了可能的机制。报告显示，受影响最大的患者有潜在的慢性疾病，如高血压和糖尿病，这是出血性中风的两个关键危险因素。血管紧张素转换酶 2 是主要的宿主细胞表面受体，与新型冠状病毒的刺突糖蛋白相互作用，使病毒进入和感染。我们推测，随后血管紧张素转换酶 2 表达的下调可能会增加先前存在的合并症带来的风险，并通过升高血压和损害脑血管内皮功能来严重影响出血性卒中的发病机制。此外，与年龄和/或疾病相关的免疫功能紊乱以及继发于焦虑和压力的儿茶酚胺释放增强也可能加重新型冠状病毒感染的中枢神经系统症状。因此，对全身炎症生物标志物的评估和入院时血流动力学参数的严格控制对于降低 2019 例中枢神经系统症状提示早期卒中的冠状病毒病患者的死亡率和发病率至关重要。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.