- 作者列表："Kopel J","Perisetti A","Gajendran M","Boregowda U","Goyal H
:The month of December 2019 became a critical part of the time of humanity when the first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in the Wuhan, Hubei Province in China. As of April 13th, 2020, there have been approximately 1.9 million cases and 199,000 deaths across the world, which were associated with COVID-19. The COVID-19 is the seventh coronavirus to be identified to infect humans. In the past, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome were the two coronaviruses that infected humans with a high fatality, particularly among the elderly. Fatalities due to COVID-19 are higher in patients older than 50 years of age or those with multimorbid conditions. The COVID-19 is mainly transmitted through respiratory droplets, with the most common symptoms being high fever, cough, myalgia, atypical symptoms included sputum production, headache, hemoptysis and diarrhea. However, the incubation period can range from 2 to 14 days without any symptoms. It is particularly true with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in which patients can still shed the virus even after pulmonary symptoms have resolved. Given the high percentage of COVID-19 patients that present with GI symptoms (e.g., nausea and diarrhea), screening patients for GI symptoms remain essential. Recently, cases of fecal-oral transmission of COVID-19 have been confirmed in the USA and China, indicating that the virus can replicate in both the respiratory and digestive tract. Moreover, the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnostic procedures, treatments and prevention of the gastrointestinal manifestations of COVID-19 remain to be elucidated.
2019 年 12 月，中国湖北省武汉市报告了首例 2019 型冠状病毒 (新型冠状病毒肺炎) 病例，成为人类历史的重要组成部分。截至 2020 年 4 月 13 日，全世界大约有 190万例病例和 199,000 例死亡，与新型冠状病毒肺炎有关。新型冠状病毒肺炎是第七个被确认感染人类的冠状病毒。在过去，严重急性呼吸系统综合症和中东呼吸综合征是两种冠状病毒，感染了人类，死亡率很高，特别是在老年人中。年龄大于 50 岁或有多种疾病的患者因新型冠状病毒肺炎死亡较高。新型冠状病毒肺炎主要通过呼吸道飞沫传播，最常见的症状是发热、咳嗽、肌肉疼痛，非典型症状包括咳痰、头痛、咯血和腹泻。然而，潜伏期可以从 2 到 14 天不等，没有任何症状。对于胃肠道 (GI) 症状尤其如此，即使肺部症状已经解决，患者仍然可以摆脱病毒。鉴于新型冠状病毒肺炎患者出现GI症状 (如恶心和腹泻) 的比例较高，筛查患者的GI症状仍然是必不可少的。最近，在美国和中国，新型冠状病毒肺炎的粪-口传播病例已经被证实，表明该病毒可以在呼吸道和消化道中复制。此外，新型冠状病毒肺炎的流行病流行病学临床特征、诊断方法、治疗和预防还有待阐明。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.