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A close look at the biology of SARS-CoV-2, and the potential influence of weather conditions and seasons on COVID-19 case spread.

仔细观察SARS-CoV-2 的生物学,以及天气条件和季节对病例传播新型冠状病毒肺炎潜在影响。

  • 影响因子:0
  • DOI:10.1186/s40249-020-00688-1
  • 作者列表:"Adedokun KA","Olarinmoye AO","Mustapha JO","Kamorudeen RT
  • 发表时间:2020-06-26
Abstract

BACKGROUND:There is sufficient epidemiological and biological evidence of increased human susceptibility to viral pathogens such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus and influenza virus, in cold weather. The pattern of outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China during the flu season is further proof that meteorological conditions may potentially influence the susceptibility of human populations to coronaviruses, a situation that may become increasingly evident as the current global pandemic of COVID-19 unfolds. MAIN BODY:A very rapid spread and high mortality rates have characterized the COVID-19 pandemic in countries north of the equator where air temperatures have been seasonally low. It is unclear if the currently high rates of COVID-19 infections in countries of the northern hemisphere will wane during the summer months, or if fewer people overall will become infected with COVID-19 in countries south of the equator where warmer weather conditions prevail through most of the year. However, apart from the influence of seasons, evidence based on the structural biology and biochemical properties of many enveloped viruses similar to the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 or SARS-CoV-2 (aetiology of COVID-19), support the higher likelihood of the latter of the two outcomes. Other factors that may potentially impact the rate of virus spread include the effectiveness of infection control practices, individual and herd immunity, and emergency preparedness levels of countries. CONCLUSION:This report highlights the potential influence of weather conditions, seasons and non-climatological factors on the geographical spread of cases of COVID-19 across the globe.

摘要

背景: 有足够的流行病学和生物学证据表明,在寒冷天气下,人类对中东呼吸综合征冠状病毒、呼吸道合胞病毒、人偏肺病毒和流感病毒等病毒病原体的易感性增加。流感季节中国冠状病毒疾病 2019 (新型冠状病毒肺炎) 的爆发模式进一步证明,气象条件可能潜在地影响人群对冠状病毒es的易感性,随着当前新型冠状病毒肺炎的全球流行,这种情况可能越来越明显。 主体: 迅速蔓延和高死亡率为特征的新型冠状病毒肺炎流行病国家赤道以北的地方air气温一直季节性低.目前尚不清楚北半球国家目前的高新型冠状病毒肺炎感染率是否会在夏季有所下降,或者在赤道以南的国家,如果总体上有更少的人感染新型冠状病毒肺炎,在一年的大部分时间里,那里的气候更加温暖。然而,除了季节的影响之外,基于许多包膜病毒的结构生物学和生化特性的证据类似于新的新型冠状病毒或SARS-CoV-2 (新型冠状病毒肺炎的病原学),支持两种结果中后者的可能性较高。其他可能影响病毒传播速度的因素包括感染控制实践的有效性、个人和群体免疫力以及国家的应急准备水平。 结论: 本报告强调了天气条件、季节和非气候因素对全球新型冠状病毒肺炎病例地理分布的潜在影响。

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DOI:10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e79
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METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.

影响因子:4.36
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METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.

翻译标题与摘要 下载文献
影响因子:2.48
发表时间:2020-04-01
来源期刊:Infection
DOI:10.1007/s15010-020-01401-y
作者列表:["Cheng ZJ","Shan J"]

METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.

呼吸道感染方向

呼吸道感染分为上呼吸道感染与下呼吸道感染。上呼吸道感染是指自鼻腔至喉部之间的急性炎症的总称,是最常见的感染性疾病。下呼吸道感染是最常见的感染性疾患,治疗时必须明确引起感染的病原体以选择有效的抗生素。

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