Differential interferon gene expression in bronchiolitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus-A genotype ON1.
- 作者列表："Pierangeli A","Viscido A","Bitossi C","Frasca F","Gentile M","Oliveto G","Frassanito A","Nenna R","Midulla F","Scagnolari C
:Bronchiolitis severity is determined by a complex interaction among viral replication and antiviral immunity. The current respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-A, genotype ON1 demonstrated a high replicative capacity but seemed to be clinically less severe than the previously circulating RSV-A, NA1. To learn insights about ON1 innate immune response, we analyzed expression levels of type I/III interferon (IFN)-related genes in the respiratory mucosa of infants with RSV bronchiolitis. We enrolled RSV-positive bronchiolitis patients over 12 epidemic seasons at a university hospital in Rome. From nasopharyngeal washings' cells (46 positive to NA1, 47 to ON1 and 28 to RSV-B, genotype BA), the mRNA copy number of the type III IFN receptor (IFNLR1 and IL10RB subunits), and of the type I/III IFN-stimulated genes, MxA and ISG56, was calculated using the threshold cycle relative quantification method with respect to an invariant gene. Expression levels of type III IFN receptor subunits genes positively correlated to each other and did not differ in infants infected with different RSV genotypes. The ISGs levels also positively correlated between them but differed among groups. MxA levels were significantly higher in NA1-infected infants than in those with ON1 and BA; ISG56 expression was slightly higher in NA1 than in the other strains. Interestingly, a moderate negative correlation existed between viral load and both ISGs values in ON1-infected infants only. The reduced ISG levels elicited during infections with ON1 (and BA) may cause a weaker control of RSV replication and/or an inadequate host immune response which may impact the risk of respiratory sequelae.
: 毛细支气管炎的严重程度是由病毒复制和抗病毒免疫之间复杂的相互作用决定的。目前的呼吸道合胞病毒 (RSV)-A基因型ON1 表现出较高的复制能力，但在临床上似乎不如以前循环的RSV-a，na1 严重。为了了解ON1 固有免疫应答的见解，我们分析了RSV毛细支气管炎婴儿呼吸道黏膜中I/III型干扰素 (IFN) 相关基因的表达水平。我们在罗马一所大学医院招募了超过 12 个流行季节的RSV阳性毛细支气管炎患者。从鼻咽冲洗液细胞 (NA1 阳性 46 例，ON1 阳性 47 例，RSV-B阳性 28 例，基因型BA)，III型IFN受体 (IFNLR1 和IL10RB亚单位) 的mRNA拷贝数，以及I/III型IFN刺激基因，MxA和ISG56，使用关于不变基因的阈值周期相对定量方法计算。Ⅲ 型IFN受体亚基基因的表达水平相互正相关，在不同RSV基因型感染的婴儿中没有差异。ISGs水平在它们之间也呈正相关，但在组间存在差异。MxA水平在NA1-infected婴儿中显著高于ON1 和BA; ISG56 在NA1 中的表达略高于其他菌株。有趣的是，病毒载量和两个ISGs值之间存在中度负相关，仅ON1-infected婴儿。感染ON1 (和BA) 时引起的ISG水平降低可能导致RSV复制控制较弱和/或宿主免疫反应不足，这可能影响呼吸系统后遗症的风险。
METHODS::Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection has been spreading from Wuhan, China. The confirmed COVID-19 patients in South Korea are those who came from or visited China. As secondary transmissions have occurred and the speed of transmission is accelerating, there are rising concerns about community infections. The 54-year old male is the third patient diagnosed with COVID-19 infection in Korea. He is a worker for a clothing business and had mild respiratory symptoms and intermittent fever in the beginning of hospitalization, and pneumonia symptoms on chest computerized tomography scan on day 6 of admission. This patient caused one case of secondary transmission and three cases of tertiary transmission. Hereby, we report the clinical findings of the index patient who was the first to cause tertiary transmission outside China. Interestingly, after lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra, AbbVie) was administered, β-coronavirus viral loads significantly decreased and no or little coronavirus titers were observed.
METHODS::In December 2019, a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) caused an outbreak in Wuhan, China, and soon spread to other parts of the world. It was believed that 2019-nCoV was transmitted through respiratory tract and then induced pneumonia, thus molecular diagnosis based on oral swabs was used for confirmation of this disease. Likewise, patient will be released upon two times of negative detection from oral swabs. However, many coronaviruses can also be transmitted through oral-fecal route by infecting intestines. Whether 2019-nCoV infected patients also carry virus in other organs like intestine need to be tested. We conducted investigation on patients in a local hospital who were infected with this virus. We found the presence of 2019-nCoV in anal swabs and blood as well, and more anal swab positives than oral swab positives in a later stage of infection, suggesting shedding and thereby transmitted through oral-fecal route. We also showed serology test can improve detection positive rate thus should be used in future epidemiology. Our report provides a cautionary warning that 2019-nCoV may be shed through multiple routes.
METHODS::There is a current worldwide outbreak of a new type of coronavirus (2019-nCoV), which originated from Wuhan in China and has now spread to 17 other countries. Governments are under increased pressure to stop the outbreak spiraling into a global health emergency. At this stage, preparedness, transparency, and sharing of information are crucial to risk assessments and beginning outbreak control activities. This information should include reports from outbreak sites and from laboratories supporting the investigation. This paper aggregates and consolidates the virology, epidemiology, clinical management strategies from both English and Chinese literature, official news channels, and other official government documents. In addition, by fitting the number of infections with a single-term exponential model, we report that the infection is spreading at an exponential rate, with a doubling period of 1.8 days.