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Development and Validation of a Canine Castration Model and Rubric.

犬去势模型和量规的开发和验证。

  • 影响因子:0.73
  • DOI:10.3138/jvme.1117-158r1
  • 作者列表:"Hunt JA","Heydenburg M","Kelly CK","Anderson SL","Dascanio JJ
  • 发表时间:2020-02-01
Abstract

:Veterinary educators use models to allow repetitive practice of surgical skills leading to clinical competence. Canine castration is a commonly performed procedure that is considered a Day One competency for a veterinarian. In this study, we sought to create and evaluate a canine pre-scrotal closed castration model and grading rubric using a validation framework of content evidence, internal structure evidence, and relationship with other variables. Veterinarians (n = 8) and students (n = 32) were recorded while they performed a castration on the model and provided survey feedback. A subset of the students (n = 7) then performed a live canine castration, and their scores were compared with their model scores. One hundred percent of the veterinarians and 91% of the students reported that the model was helpful in training for canine castration. They highlighted several areas for continued improvement. Veterinarians' model performance scores were significantly higher than students', indicating that the model had adequate features to differentiate expert from novice performance. Students' performance on the model strongly correlated with their performance of live castration (r = .82). Surgical time was also strongly correlated (r = .70). The internal consistency of model and live rubric scores were good at .85 and .94, respectively. The framework supported validation of the model and rubric. The canine castration model facilitated cost-efficient practice in a safe environment in which students received instructor feedback and learned through experience without the risk of negatively affecting a patient's well-being. The strong correlation between model and live animal performance scores suggests that the model could be useful for mastery learning.

摘要

: 兽医教育者使用模型来允许重复练习手术技能,从而提高临床能力。犬阉割是一种常见的手术,被认为是兽医的一天能力。在这项研究中,我们试图使用内容证据、内部结构证据以及与其他变量的关系的验证框架,创建和评估犬阴囊前封闭去势模型和分级量规。记录兽医 (n = 8) 和学生 (n = 32) 对模型进行阉割并提供调查反馈。一部分学生 (n = 7) 随后进行了活犬去势,并将他们的分数与他们的模型分数进行了比较。百分之百的兽医和 91% 的学生报告说,该模型有助于犬阉割的训练。他们强调了几个需要继续改进的领域。兽医的模型表现得分显著高于学生,表明该模型具有足够的特征来区分专家和新手的表现。学生在模型上的表现与其活体去势的表现强烈相关 (r = .82)。手术时间也强烈相关 (r = .70)。模型和现场量规评分的内部一致性分别为.85 和.94。该框架支持模型和量规的验证。犬去势模型促进了在安全环境中进行经济高效的实践,在这种环境中,学生接受讲师反馈并通过经验学习,而不会对患者的健康产生负面影响。模型和活体动物性能评分之间的强相关性表明,该模型可能有助于掌握学习。

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相关文献
影响因子:0.73
发表时间:2020-02-01
DOI:10.3138/jvme.1117-158r1
作者列表:["Hunt JA","Heydenburg M","Kelly CK","Anderson SL","Dascanio JJ"]

METHODS::Veterinary educators use models to allow repetitive practice of surgical skills leading to clinical competence. Canine castration is a commonly performed procedure that is considered a Day One competency for a veterinarian. In this study, we sought to create and evaluate a canine pre-scrotal closed castration model and grading rubric using a validation framework of content evidence, internal structure evidence, and relationship with other variables. Veterinarians (n = 8) and students (n = 32) were recorded while they performed a castration on the model and provided survey feedback. A subset of the students (n = 7) then performed a live canine castration, and their scores were compared with their model scores. One hundred percent of the veterinarians and 91% of the students reported that the model was helpful in training for canine castration. They highlighted several areas for continued improvement. Veterinarians' model performance scores were significantly higher than students', indicating that the model had adequate features to differentiate expert from novice performance. Students' performance on the model strongly correlated with their performance of live castration (r = .82). Surgical time was also strongly correlated (r = .70). The internal consistency of model and live rubric scores were good at .85 and .94, respectively. The framework supported validation of the model and rubric. The canine castration model facilitated cost-efficient practice in a safe environment in which students received instructor feedback and learned through experience without the risk of negatively affecting a patient's well-being. The strong correlation between model and live animal performance scores suggests that the model could be useful for mastery learning.

影响因子:2.56
发表时间:2020-02-01
DOI:10.1007/s00345-019-02780-0
作者列表:["Renninger M","Fahmy O","Schubert T","Schmid MA","Hassan F","Stenzl A","Gakis G"]

METHODS:PURPOSE:To investigate whether hexaminolevulinate-based (HAL) bladder tumor resection (TURBT) impacts on outcomes of patients with primary non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) who were eventually treated with radical cystectomy (RC). METHODS:A total of 131 consecutive patients exhibiting NMIBC at primary diagnosis were retrospectively investigated whether they had undergone any HAL-guided TURBT prior to RC. Uni- and multivariable analyses were used to evaluate the impact of HAL-TURBT on cancer-specific (CSS) and overall survival (OS). The median follow-up was 38 months (IQR 13-56). RESULTS:Of the 131 patients, 69 (52.7%) were managed with HAL- and 62 (47.3%) with white light (WL)-TURBT only prior to RC. HAL-TURBT was associated with a higher number of TURBTs prior to RC (p = 0.002) and administration of intravesical chemotherapy (p = 0.043). A trend towards a higher rate of tumor-associated immune cell infiltrates in RC specimens (p = 0.07) and a lower utilization rate of post-operative systemic chemotherapy (p = 0.10) was noted for patients who were treated with HAL-TURBT. The 5-year CSS/OS was 90.9%/74.5% for the HAL-group and 73.8%/55.8% for the WL-group (p = 0.042/0.038). In multivariable analysis, lymph node tumor involvement (p = 0.007), positive surgical margins (p = 0.001) and performance of WL-TURBT only (p = 0.040) were independent predictors for cancer-specific death. CONCLUSIONS:The present data suggest that the resection of NMIBC under HAL exerts a beneficial impact on outcomes of patients who will need to undergo RC during their course of disease. This finding may be due to improved risk stratification as the resection under HAL may allow more patients to be treated timely and adequately.

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影响因子:1.46
发表时间:2020-02-01
来源期刊:The Journal of urology
DOI:10.1097/JU.0000000000000313
作者列表:["Alder R","Zetner D","Rosenberg J"]

METHODS:PURPOSE:To investigate the incidence of inguinal hernia following radical prostatectomy we compared the incidence after open retropubic radical prostatectomy with the incidence after the laparoscopic and robot-assisted radical prostatectomies, and using control groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We included all original articles on studies providing data on inguinal hernia incidence in patients treated with radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer. PubMed® and EMBASE® were searched on February 28, 2018. A meta-analysis was done as a weighted and pooled estimate of the incidence of inguinal hernia. The bias risk was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for cohort studies and the Cochrane Collaboration tool for randomized clinical trials. RESULTS:We included 54 studies with a total of 101,687 patients. The estimated incidence of inguinal hernia was 13.7% (95% CI 12.0-15.4) after open retropubic radical prostatectomy, 7.5% (95% CI 5.2-9.8) after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and 7.9% (95% CI 5.0-10.9) after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. In studies comparing the incidence of inguinal hernia after open prostatectomy vs no treatment the incidence was significantly higher in the radical prostatectomy group (11.7%, 95% CI 9.2-14.2 vs 3.3%, 95% CI 2.0-4.6). Two of 3 studies showed a significantly higher incidence after laparoscopic and robot-assisted radical prostatectomies compared with a control group. Most studies of intraoperative inguinal hernia prevention techniques demonstrated a significantly lower inguinal hernia incidence in the experimental group. Inguinal hernias that developed after radical prostatectomy were primarily indirect (81.9%, 95% CI 75.3-88.4). CONCLUSIONS:We found a high incidence of inguinal hernia following radical prostatectomy and hernias were primarily of the indirect type. The highest incidence of inguinal hernia was noted after open radical prostatectomy, followed by laparoscopic and robot-assisted radical prostatectomies. There was no significant difference between the laparoscopic and robot-assisted groups. The incidence of inguinal hernia was significantly higher after open radical prostatectomy than in control groups with some evidence to support the same finding for the laparoscopic and robot-assisted approaches. Promising results have been reported in studies of intraoperative prophylactic surgical techniques to reduce the postoperative incidence of inguinal hernia.

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泌尿外科手术方向

泌尿系统出现一些病变,需要通过手术来治疗,这些手术就称为泌尿外科手术。

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