Inhibition of Hyperuricemia and Gouty Arthritis in BALB/c Mice Using Copper Oxide Nanoparticles.
- 作者列表："Kiyani MM","Rehman H","Hussain MA","Jahan S","Afzal M","Nawaz I","Mahmood T","Bokhari SAI
:Nanoparticles are known for their unique properties and are being utilized in various disciplines of sciences. Their nanosize enables them to higher exposure and higher availability when given orally. Gout is an inflammatory disease caused by deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystal deposition into the joints. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of copper oxide nanoparticles on hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis in mice. In this research, synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles of size ranging from 30 to 50 nm were administered orally to mice having gouty arthritis and hyperuricemia. Various biochemical markers were conducted to determine the effects of copper oxide nanoparticles. It was observed that the mice treated with CuO NPs at various concentrations showed a significant (0.001) decrease in the serum uric acid levels in comparison with the negative control. Furthermore, creatinine levels were also normal in comparison with the control mice. Measurement of synovial joints also revealed that mice administered with CuO NPs had reduced inflammation of synovial joints in comparison with the negative control. From this research, it was concluded that copper oxide nanoparticles have potential in the treatment of hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis by decreasing serum uric acid and inflammation in synovial joints.
: 纳米颗粒以其独特的性质而闻名，并被用于各种科学学科。它们的纳米尺寸使它们能够在口服给药时获得更高的暴露量和更高的可用性。痛风是一种由单钠尿酸盐 (MSU) 结晶沉积到关节内引起的炎症性疾病。本研究的目的是评估氧化铜纳米颗粒对小鼠高尿酸血症和痛风性关节炎的影响。在这项研究中，合成的氧化铜纳米颗粒的大小范围从 30 到 50 纳米口服给患有痛风性关节炎和高尿酸血症的小鼠。进行各种生化标志物测定氧化铜纳米颗粒的作用。观察到与阴性对照相比，用不同浓度的CuO NPs处理的小鼠血清尿酸水平显著 (0.001) 降低。此外，与对照组小鼠相比，肌酐水平也正常。滑膜关节的测量还发现，与阴性对照相比，给予CuO NPs的小鼠滑膜关节炎症减轻。从本研究中得出结论，氧化铜纳米颗粒通过降低血清尿酸和滑膜关节炎症，具有治疗高尿酸血症和痛风性关节炎的潜力。
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the cardiovascular risk of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) remains poorly studied. We aimed to investigate the association between primary SS and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. METHODS:We performed a systematic review of articles in Medline and the Cochrane Library and recent abstracts from US and European meetings, searching for reports of randomized controlled studies of cardiovascular morbidity and cardiovascular mortality in primary SS. The relative risk (RR) values for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with primary SS were collected and pooled in a meta-analysis with a random-effects model by using Review Manager (Cochrane collaboration). RESULTS:The literature search revealed 484 articles and abstracts of interest; 14 studies (67,124 patients with primary SS) were included in the meta-analysis. With primary SS versus control populations, the risk was significantly increased for coronary morbidity (RR 1.34 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.06-1.38]; P = 0.01), cerebrovascular morbidity (RR 1.46 [95% CI 1.43-1.49]; P < 0.00001), heart failure rate (odds ratio 2.54 [95% CI 1.30-4.97]; P < 0.007), and thromboembolic morbidity (RR 1.78 [95% CI 1.41-2.25]; P < 0.00001), with no statistically significant increased risk of cardiovascular mortality (RR 1.48 [95% CI 0.77-2.85]; P = 0.24). CONCLUSION:This meta-analysis demonstrates that primary SS is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, which suggests that these patients should be screened for cardiovascular comorbidities and considered for preventive interventions, in a multidisciplinary approach with cardiologists.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:We aimed to evaluate the comparative risk of hospitalized infection among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who initiated abatacept versus a tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi). METHODS:Using claims data from Truven MarketScan database (2006-2015), we identified patients with RA ages ≥18 years with ≥2 RA diagnoses who initiated treatment with abatacept or a TNFi. The primary outcome was a composite end point of any hospitalized infection. Secondary outcomes included bacterial infection, herpes zoster, and infections affecting different organ systems. We performed 1:1 propensity score (PS) matching between the groups in order to control for baseline confounders. We estimated incidence rates (IRs) and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for hospitalized infection. RESULTS:We identified 11,248 PS-matched pairs of patients who initiated treatment with abatacept and TNFi with a median age of 56 years (83% were women). The IR per 1,000 person-years for any hospitalized infection was 37 among patients who initiated treatment with abatacept and 47 in those who initiated treatment with TNFi. The HR for the risk of any hospitalized infection associated with abatacept versus TNFi was 0.78 (95% CI 0.64-0.95) and remained lower when compared to infliximab (HR 0.63 [95% CI 0.47-0.85]), while no significant difference was seen when compared to adalimumab and etanercept. The risk of secondary outcomes was lower for abatacept for pulmonary infections, and similar to TNFi for the remaining outcomes. CONCLUSION:In this large cohort of patients with RA who initiated treatment with abatacept or TNFi as a first- or second-line biologic agent, we found a lower risk of hospitalized infection after initiating abatacept versus TNFi, which was driven mostly by infliximab.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Reducing pain is one of the main health priorities for children and young people with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA); however, some studies indicate that pain is not routinely assessed in this patient group. The aim of this study was to explore health care professionals' (HCPs) beliefs about the role of pain and the prioritization of its assessment in children and young people with JIA. METHODS:Semi-structured interviews were conducted with HCPs who manage children and young people with JIA in the UK (including consultant and trainee pediatric rheumatologists, nurses, physical therapists, and occupational therapists). Data were analyzed qualitatively following a framework analysis approach. RESULTS:Twenty-one HCPs participated. Analyses of the data identified 6 themes, including lack of training and low confidence in pain assessment, reluctance to engage in pain discussions, low prioritization of pain assessment, specific beliefs about the nature of pain in JIA, treatment of pain in JIA, and undervaluing pain reports. Assessment of pain symptoms was regarded as a low priority and some HCPs actively avoided conversations about pain. CONCLUSION:These findings indicate that the assessment of pain in children and young people with JIA may be limited by knowledge, skills, and attitudinal factors. HCPs' accounts of their beliefs about pain in JIA and their low prioritization of pain in clinical practice suggest that a shift in perceptions about pain management may be helpful for professionals managing children and young people with this condition.