Effect of Interleukin-34 on Secretion of Angiogenesis Cytokines by Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Rheumatoid Arthritis.
- 作者列表："Ding LL","Li X","Lei YM","Xia LP","Lu J","Shen H
BACKGROUND:Interleukin (IL)-34 is a new pro-inflammatory cytokine. Previous studies showed that IL-34 plays a key role in inflammation and osteoporosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, whether IL-34 participates in angiogenesis in RA remains unknown. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) play critical roles in the angiogenesis of RA. METHODS:22 patients with RA, 18 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and 8 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and purified from peripheral blood by density gradient centrifugation. PBMCs were stimulated using anti-CD3/CD28 antibody and different concentrations of recombinant human (rh) IL-34 (0, 10, 20, 50, 100 ng/mL). Cell-free supernatants were collected after 72 h incubation, and VEGF and HIF-1α levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS:IL-34 promotes the secretion of VEGF and HIF-1α by PBMCs in RA patients in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, IL-34 has no effect on VEGF and HIF-1α secretion by PBMCs in AS and healthy controls. CONCLUSION:IL-34 may indirectly contribute to angiogenesis by promoting the production of VEGF and HIF-1α and participate in the pathogenesis of RA.
背景: 白细胞介素 (IL)-34 是一种新的促炎细胞因子。以往的研究表明，IL-34 在类风湿性关节炎 (RA) 的炎症和骨质疏松中起关键作用。然而，IL-34 是否参与RA的血管生成仍不清楚。血管内皮生长因子 (VEGF) 和缺氧诱导因子-1 α (hif-1 α) 在RA的血管生成中起关键作用。 方法: RA患者 22 例，强直性脊柱炎 (AS) 患者 18 例，健康体检者 8 例。采用密度梯度离心法从外周血中分离纯化外周血单个核细胞 (PBMCs)。用anti-CD3/CD28 抗体和不同浓度的重组人 (rh) IL-34 (0 、 1 0 、 2 0 、 5 0 、 1 0 0 ng/mL) 刺激pbmc。孵育 72 h后收集无细胞上清液，采用酶联免疫吸附法 (ELISA) 测定VEGF和hif-1 α 水平。 结果: IL-34 呈剂量依赖性促进RA患者PBMCs分泌VEGF和hif-1 α。相比之下，IL-34 对AS和健康对照组PBMCs分泌VEGF和hif-1 α 没有影响。 结论: IL-34 可能通过促进VEGF和hif-1 α 的产生间接促进血管生成，参与RA的发病。
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the cardiovascular risk of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS) remains poorly studied. We aimed to investigate the association between primary SS and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. METHODS:We performed a systematic review of articles in Medline and the Cochrane Library and recent abstracts from US and European meetings, searching for reports of randomized controlled studies of cardiovascular morbidity and cardiovascular mortality in primary SS. The relative risk (RR) values for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with primary SS were collected and pooled in a meta-analysis with a random-effects model by using Review Manager (Cochrane collaboration). RESULTS:The literature search revealed 484 articles and abstracts of interest; 14 studies (67,124 patients with primary SS) were included in the meta-analysis. With primary SS versus control populations, the risk was significantly increased for coronary morbidity (RR 1.34 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.06-1.38]; P = 0.01), cerebrovascular morbidity (RR 1.46 [95% CI 1.43-1.49]; P < 0.00001), heart failure rate (odds ratio 2.54 [95% CI 1.30-4.97]; P < 0.007), and thromboembolic morbidity (RR 1.78 [95% CI 1.41-2.25]; P < 0.00001), with no statistically significant increased risk of cardiovascular mortality (RR 1.48 [95% CI 0.77-2.85]; P = 0.24). CONCLUSION:This meta-analysis demonstrates that primary SS is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, which suggests that these patients should be screened for cardiovascular comorbidities and considered for preventive interventions, in a multidisciplinary approach with cardiologists.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:We aimed to evaluate the comparative risk of hospitalized infection among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who initiated abatacept versus a tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi). METHODS:Using claims data from Truven MarketScan database (2006-2015), we identified patients with RA ages ≥18 years with ≥2 RA diagnoses who initiated treatment with abatacept or a TNFi. The primary outcome was a composite end point of any hospitalized infection. Secondary outcomes included bacterial infection, herpes zoster, and infections affecting different organ systems. We performed 1:1 propensity score (PS) matching between the groups in order to control for baseline confounders. We estimated incidence rates (IRs) and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for hospitalized infection. RESULTS:We identified 11,248 PS-matched pairs of patients who initiated treatment with abatacept and TNFi with a median age of 56 years (83% were women). The IR per 1,000 person-years for any hospitalized infection was 37 among patients who initiated treatment with abatacept and 47 in those who initiated treatment with TNFi. The HR for the risk of any hospitalized infection associated with abatacept versus TNFi was 0.78 (95% CI 0.64-0.95) and remained lower when compared to infliximab (HR 0.63 [95% CI 0.47-0.85]), while no significant difference was seen when compared to adalimumab and etanercept. The risk of secondary outcomes was lower for abatacept for pulmonary infections, and similar to TNFi for the remaining outcomes. CONCLUSION:In this large cohort of patients with RA who initiated treatment with abatacept or TNFi as a first- or second-line biologic agent, we found a lower risk of hospitalized infection after initiating abatacept versus TNFi, which was driven mostly by infliximab.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Reducing pain is one of the main health priorities for children and young people with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA); however, some studies indicate that pain is not routinely assessed in this patient group. The aim of this study was to explore health care professionals' (HCPs) beliefs about the role of pain and the prioritization of its assessment in children and young people with JIA. METHODS:Semi-structured interviews were conducted with HCPs who manage children and young people with JIA in the UK (including consultant and trainee pediatric rheumatologists, nurses, physical therapists, and occupational therapists). Data were analyzed qualitatively following a framework analysis approach. RESULTS:Twenty-one HCPs participated. Analyses of the data identified 6 themes, including lack of training and low confidence in pain assessment, reluctance to engage in pain discussions, low prioritization of pain assessment, specific beliefs about the nature of pain in JIA, treatment of pain in JIA, and undervaluing pain reports. Assessment of pain symptoms was regarded as a low priority and some HCPs actively avoided conversations about pain. CONCLUSION:These findings indicate that the assessment of pain in children and young people with JIA may be limited by knowledge, skills, and attitudinal factors. HCPs' accounts of their beliefs about pain in JIA and their low prioritization of pain in clinical practice suggest that a shift in perceptions about pain management may be helpful for professionals managing children and young people with this condition.