Exploring GRHL3 polymorphisms and SNP-SNP interactions in the risk of non-syndromic oral clefts in the Brazilian population.
- 作者列表："Azevedo CMS","Machado RA","Martelli-Júnior H","Reis SRA","Persuhn DC","Coletta RD","Rangel ALCA
OBJECTIVE:To investigate the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in grainyhead-like 3 (GRHL3) and to verify its possible interactions with others genes responsible for craniofacial development in the risk of non-syndromic oral cleft (NSOC). METHODS:Applying TaqMan allelic discrimination assays, we evaluated GRHL3 SNPs (rs10903078, rs41268753, and rs4648975) in an ancestry-structured case-control sample composed of 1,127 Brazilian participants [272 non-syndromic cleft palate only (NSCPO), 242 non-syndromic cleft lip only (NSCLO), 319 non-syndromic cleft lip and palate (NSCLP), and 294 healthy controls]. Additionally, SNP-SNP interactions of GRHL3 and previously reported variants in FAM49A, FOXE1, NTN1, and VAX1 were verified in non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL ± P). To eliminate false-positive associations, Bonferroni correction or 1,000 permutation method was applied. RESULTS:The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the CC genotype of rs10903078 (p = .03) and the haplotype C-C formed by the SNPs rs10903078 and rs41268753 (p = .04) were associated with NSCLO, but the p-values did not withstand Bonferroni correction. However, SNP-SNP test revealed significant interactions between GRHL3 SNPs and FAM49A (rs7552), FOXE1 (rs3758249), VAX1 (rs7078160 and rs751231), and NTN1 (rs9891446). CONCLUSIONS:Our results confirm the importance of GRHL3 and its interactions with previously NSOC-associated genes, including FAM49A, FOXE1, NTN1, and VAX1, in the pathogenesis of NSOC in the Brazilian population.
目的: 探讨grainyhead-like 3 (GRHL3) 基因单核苷酸多态性 (SNP) 的相关性。并验证其与非综合征性口腔裂 (NSOC) 风险中与其他负责颅面发育的基因可能的相互作用。 方法: 应用TaqMan等位基因辨别试验，我们评价了GRHL3 SNPs (rs10903078 、rs41268753 和rs4648975) 在由 1,127 名巴西参与者组成的祖先结构的病例对照样本中 [272 只非综合征性腭裂 (NSCPO)，242 只非综合征性唇裂 (NSCLO)，319 例非综合征性唇腭裂 (NSCLP)，294 例健康对照]。此外，在非综合征性唇裂伴或不伴腭裂中验证了GRHL3 的SNP-SNP相互作用和以前报道的FAM49A、FOXE1 、NTN1 和VAX1 的变异 (NSCL ± P)。为了消除假阳性关联，采用Bonferroni校正或 1,000 排列法。 结果: 多元logistic回归分析显示，rs10903078 的CC基因型 (p = .03) 和SNPs rs10903078 和rs41268753 形成的单倍型C-C (p = .04) 与NSCLO相关，但p值不耐受Bonferroni校正。然而，SNP-SNP检测发现GRHL3 SNPs与FAM49A (rs7552) 、FOXE1 (rs3758249) 、VAX1 (rs7078160 和rs751231) 和NTN1 (rs9891446) 之间存在显著的相互作用。 结论: 我们的结果证实了GRHL3 及其与先前NSOC相关基因，包括FAM49A、FOXE1 、NTN1 和VAX1 在巴西人群NSOC发病中的重要性及其相互作用。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The anterior oronasal fistulae neighboring the alveolar cleft could persist or reappear after the alveolar reconstruction with cancellous bone grafting. The persistent symptomatic anterior oronasal fistulae need to be repaired, but surgery remains a challenge in cleft care. Surprisingly, this issue has rarely been reported in the literature. The purpose of this long-term study was to report a single surgeon experience with a therapeutic protocol for persistent symptomatic anterior oronasal fistula repair. METHODS:This is a retrospective study of consecutive patients with Veau type III and IV clefts and persistent symptomatic anterior oronasal fistulae managed according to a therapeutic protocol from 1997 to 2018. Depending on fistula size, patients were treated with local flaps associated with an interpositional graft or two-stage tongue flaps (small/medium or large fistulae, respectively). The surgical outcomes were classified as "good" (complete fistula closure with no symptoms), "fair" (asymptomatic narrow fistula remained), or "poor" (failure with persistent symptoms). RESULTS:Forty-four patients with persistent symptomatic anterior oronasal fistulae were reconstructed with local flaps associated with interpositional fascia or dermal fat grafting (52.3%) or two-stage tongue flaps (47.7%). Most of patients (93.2%) presented "good" outcomes, ranging from 87% to 100% (local and tongue flaps, respectively). Three (6.8%) patients presented symptomatic residual fistula ("poor" outcomes). CONCLUSIONS:For the repair of persistent symptomatic anterior oronasal fistulae, this therapeutic protocol provided satisfactory outcome with low fistula recurrence rate.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Methadone is a vital treatment for women with opioid use disorder in pregnancy. Previous reports suggested an association between methadone exposure and Pierre Robin sequence (PRS), a rare craniofacial anomaly. We assessed the association between gestational methadone exposure and PRS. DESIGN/SETTING:This case-malformed control study used European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies population-based registries in Ireland, the Netherlands, Italy, Switzerland, Croatia, Malta, Portugal, Germany, Wales, Norway and Spain, 1995-2011. PATIENTS:Cases included PRS based on International Classification of Disease (ICD), Ninth Edition-British Paediatric Association (BPA) code 75 603 or ICD, Tenth Edition-BPA code Q8708. Malformed controls were all non-PRS anomalies, excluding genetic conditions, among live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks' gestation and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomalies. An exploratory analysis assessed the association between methadone exposure and other congenital anomalies (CAs) excluding PRS. Methadone exposure was ascertained from medical records and maternal interview. RESULTS:Among 87 979 CA registrations, there were 127 methadone-exposed pregnancies and 336 PRS cases. There was an association between methadone exposure and PRS (OR adjusted for registry 12.3, 95% CI 5.7 to 26.8). In absolute terms, this association reflects a risk increase from approximately 1-12 cases per 10 000 births. A raised OR was found for cleft palate (adjusted OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.7 to 9.2). CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest that gestational methadone exposure is associated with PRS. The association may be explained by unmeasured confounding factors. The small increased risk of PRS in itself does not alter the risk-benefit balance for gestational methadone use. The association with cleft palate, a more common CA, should be assessed with independent data.
METHODS::Orthopedic treatment to improve deficient maxillary growth of cleft lip and palate patients is an important part of treatment. The success of this treatment is strongly dependent on the time of initiation of therapy. There has been a large controversy in the available literature regarding the skeletal age of these patients. The aim of the present study was to compare the skeletal age of cleft lip and palate patients with normal individuals.37 unilateral and 14 bilateral cleft lip and palate patients and 47 healthy individuals participated in this cross-sectional study. The patients were classified into 8 to 10 and 11 to 14-year-old individuals. Cervical vertebral maturational stage of participants was evaluated in the lateral cephalometry. The skeletal age of cleft lip and palate patients was compared with normal controls. Chi-square was used for statistical analysis. There was not a significant difference in the skeletal developmental stage of unilateral and bilateral cleft compared to their normal peers according to their age and sex. Also, significant difference in skeletal maturational stage of cleft lip and palate patients was not found between boys and girls (P = 0.8). Similarly, no significant difference was found in the skeletal age of the 3 studied groups without considering the age and sex of participants (P = 0.5). Regarding the similar skeletal maturational stage of cleft lip and palate patients with normal controls in our study, their maxillofacial orthopedic treatment can be initiated at similar time to normal peers.