The Reducing Opioid Use in Children with Clefts Protocol: A Multidisciplinary Quality Improvement Effort to Reduce Perioperative Opioid Use in Patients Undergoing Cleft Surgery.
- 作者列表："Lee A","Chang BL","Yan C","Fox JP","Magee L","Scott M","Maguire MA","Ross K","Rakow C","Drake F","McGinnis A","Watson A","Burlingame C","Kraemer FW","Muhly WT","Ruby J","Jackson OA
BACKGROUND:Cleft repair requires multiple operations from infancy through adolescence, with repeated exposure to opioids and their associated risks. The authors implemented a quality improvement project to reduce perioperative opioid exposure in their cleft lip/palate population. METHODS:After identifying key drivers of perioperative opioid administration, quality improvement interventions were developed to address these key drivers and reduce postoperative opioid administration from 0.30 mg/kg of morphine equivalents to 0.20 mg/kg of morphine equivalents. Data were retrospectively collected from January 1, 2015, until initiation of the quality improvement project (May 1, 2017), tracked over the 6-month quality improvement study period, and the subsequent 14 months. Metrics included morphine equivalents of opioids received during admission, administration of intraoperative nerve blocks, adherence to revised electronic medical record order sets, length of stay, and pain scores. RESULTS:The final sample included 624 patients. Before implementation (n =354), children received an average of 0.30 mg/kg of morphine equivalents postoperatively. After implementation (n = 270), children received an average of 0.14 mg/kg of morphine equivalents postoperatively (p < 0.001) without increased length of stay (28.3 versus 28.7 hours; p = 0.719) or pain at less than 6 hours (1.78 versus 1.74; p = 0.626) or more than 6 hours postoperatively (1.50 versus 1.49; p = 0.924). CONCLUSIONS:Perioperative opioid administration after cleft repair can be reduced in a relatively short period by identifying key drivers and addressing perioperative education, standardization of intraoperative pain control, and postoperative prioritization of nonopioid medications and nonpharmacologic pain control. The authors' quality improvement framework has promise for adaptation in future efforts to reduce opioid use in other surgical patient populations. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Therapeutic, III.
背景: 腭裂修复从婴儿期到青春期需要多次手术，反复暴露于阿片类药物及其相关风险。作者实施了一项质量改进项目，以减少其唇腭裂人群围手术期阿片类药物暴露。 方法: 在确定围手术期阿片类药物给药的关键驱动因素后，制定了质量改进干预措施，以解决这些关键驱动因素，并将术后阿片类药物给药从 0.30 mg/kg吗啡当量减少到 0.20 mg/kg吗啡当量。回顾性收集 2015 年 1 月 1 日至质量改进项目启动 (2017 年 5 月 1 日) 的数据，在 6 个月的质量改进研究期内进行跟踪，以及随后的 14 个月。指标包括入院时接受的阿片类药物的吗啡当量、术中神经阻滞的给药、对修订电子病历医嘱的依从性、住院时间和疼痛评分。 结果: 最终样本包括 624 例患者。实施前 (n = 354)，患儿术后平均接受 0.30 mg/kg的吗啡当量。实施后 (n = 270)，患儿术后平均接受 0.14 mg/kg等效吗啡 (p <0.001)，未增加住院时间 (28.3 对 28.7 小时); p = 0.719) 或小于 6 小时疼痛 (1.78 对 1.74; p = 0.626)或术后 6 小时以上 (1.50 对 1.49; p = 0.924)。 结论: 通过确定关键驱动因素并解决围手术期教育、术中疼痛控制标准化、和术后优先考虑非阿片类药物和非药物疼痛控制。作者的质量改进框架有望适应未来减少其他手术患者人群阿片类药物使用的努力。 临床问题/证据水平: 治疗性，III。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:The anterior oronasal fistulae neighboring the alveolar cleft could persist or reappear after the alveolar reconstruction with cancellous bone grafting. The persistent symptomatic anterior oronasal fistulae need to be repaired, but surgery remains a challenge in cleft care. Surprisingly, this issue has rarely been reported in the literature. The purpose of this long-term study was to report a single surgeon experience with a therapeutic protocol for persistent symptomatic anterior oronasal fistula repair. METHODS:This is a retrospective study of consecutive patients with Veau type III and IV clefts and persistent symptomatic anterior oronasal fistulae managed according to a therapeutic protocol from 1997 to 2018. Depending on fistula size, patients were treated with local flaps associated with an interpositional graft or two-stage tongue flaps (small/medium or large fistulae, respectively). The surgical outcomes were classified as "good" (complete fistula closure with no symptoms), "fair" (asymptomatic narrow fistula remained), or "poor" (failure with persistent symptoms). RESULTS:Forty-four patients with persistent symptomatic anterior oronasal fistulae were reconstructed with local flaps associated with interpositional fascia or dermal fat grafting (52.3%) or two-stage tongue flaps (47.7%). Most of patients (93.2%) presented "good" outcomes, ranging from 87% to 100% (local and tongue flaps, respectively). Three (6.8%) patients presented symptomatic residual fistula ("poor" outcomes). CONCLUSIONS:For the repair of persistent symptomatic anterior oronasal fistulae, this therapeutic protocol provided satisfactory outcome with low fistula recurrence rate.
METHODS:OBJECTIVE:Methadone is a vital treatment for women with opioid use disorder in pregnancy. Previous reports suggested an association between methadone exposure and Pierre Robin sequence (PRS), a rare craniofacial anomaly. We assessed the association between gestational methadone exposure and PRS. DESIGN/SETTING:This case-malformed control study used European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies population-based registries in Ireland, the Netherlands, Italy, Switzerland, Croatia, Malta, Portugal, Germany, Wales, Norway and Spain, 1995-2011. PATIENTS:Cases included PRS based on International Classification of Disease (ICD), Ninth Edition-British Paediatric Association (BPA) code 75 603 or ICD, Tenth Edition-BPA code Q8708. Malformed controls were all non-PRS anomalies, excluding genetic conditions, among live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks' gestation and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomalies. An exploratory analysis assessed the association between methadone exposure and other congenital anomalies (CAs) excluding PRS. Methadone exposure was ascertained from medical records and maternal interview. RESULTS:Among 87 979 CA registrations, there were 127 methadone-exposed pregnancies and 336 PRS cases. There was an association between methadone exposure and PRS (OR adjusted for registry 12.3, 95% CI 5.7 to 26.8). In absolute terms, this association reflects a risk increase from approximately 1-12 cases per 10 000 births. A raised OR was found for cleft palate (adjusted OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.7 to 9.2). CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest that gestational methadone exposure is associated with PRS. The association may be explained by unmeasured confounding factors. The small increased risk of PRS in itself does not alter the risk-benefit balance for gestational methadone use. The association with cleft palate, a more common CA, should be assessed with independent data.
METHODS::Orthopedic treatment to improve deficient maxillary growth of cleft lip and palate patients is an important part of treatment. The success of this treatment is strongly dependent on the time of initiation of therapy. There has been a large controversy in the available literature regarding the skeletal age of these patients. The aim of the present study was to compare the skeletal age of cleft lip and palate patients with normal individuals.37 unilateral and 14 bilateral cleft lip and palate patients and 47 healthy individuals participated in this cross-sectional study. The patients were classified into 8 to 10 and 11 to 14-year-old individuals. Cervical vertebral maturational stage of participants was evaluated in the lateral cephalometry. The skeletal age of cleft lip and palate patients was compared with normal controls. Chi-square was used for statistical analysis. There was not a significant difference in the skeletal developmental stage of unilateral and bilateral cleft compared to their normal peers according to their age and sex. Also, significant difference in skeletal maturational stage of cleft lip and palate patients was not found between boys and girls (P = 0.8). Similarly, no significant difference was found in the skeletal age of the 3 studied groups without considering the age and sex of participants (P = 0.5). Regarding the similar skeletal maturational stage of cleft lip and palate patients with normal controls in our study, their maxillofacial orthopedic treatment can be initiated at similar time to normal peers.