A Behavioural Assessment of Social Anxiety and Social Motivation in Fragile X, Cornelia de Lange and Rubinstein-Taybi Syndromes.
脆性X、Cornelia de Lange和Rubinstein-Taybi综合征中社交焦虑和社交动机的行为评估。
- 作者列表："Crawford H","Moss J","Groves L","Dowlen R","Nelson L","Reid D","Oliver C
:Unique socio-behavioural phenotypes are reported for individuals with different neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, the effects of adult familiarity and nature of interaction on social anxiety and social motivation were investigated in individuals with fragile X (FXS; n = 20), Cornelia de Lange (CdLS; n = 20) and Rubinstein-Taybi (RTS; n = 20) syndromes, compared to individuals with Down syndrome (DS; n = 20). The Social Anxiety and Motivation Rating Scale was employed whilst participants completed four social tasks, each administered separately by a familiar adult, and also by an unfamiliar adult. Compared to participants with DS, those with FXS and RTS exhibited high levels of social anxiety but similar levels of social motivation. Participants with CdLS showed heightened social anxiety and reduced social motivation only during interactions with an unfamiliar adult when active participation was voluntary.
: 报道了不同神经发育障碍个体的独特社会行为表型。在这里，对成人熟悉人与自然的相互作用对社交焦虑动机和社会影响的个体中脆性X染色体 (FXS; n = 20)，Cornelia de Lange (CdLS; N = 20) 和Rubinstein-Taybi (RTS; N = 20) 综合征，与唐氏综合征 (DS; N = 20) 个体相比。采用社交焦虑和动机评定量表，同时参与者完成了四项社交任务，每项任务分别由熟悉的成年人和不熟悉的成年人管理。与DS参与者相比，FXS和RTS参与者表现出高水平的社交焦虑，但社交动机水平相似。CdLS的参与者仅在主动参与是自愿的情况下，在与陌生成人的互动中表现出社交焦虑加剧，社交动机降低。
METHODS::Impairments in social cognition have been frequently described in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and are thought to be a hallmark of difficulties in social interactions. The present study addresses aspects that are critical for everyday social cognitive functioning but have received little attention so far. Sixteen children with 22q11.2DS and 22 controls completed 1 task of facial expression recognition, 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to faceless characters involved in visually presented social interactions, and 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to characters involved in aurally presented dialogues. All three tasks have in common to involve processing of emotions. All participants also completed two tasks of attention and two tasks of visual spatial perception, and their parents completed some scales regarding behavioural problems of their children. Patients performed worse than controls in all three tasks of emotion processing, and even worse in the second and third tasks. However, they performed above chance level in all three tasks, and the results were independent of IQ, age and gender. The analysis of error patterns suggests that patients tend to coarsely categorize situations as either attractive or repulsive and also that they have difficulties in differentiating emotions that are associated with threats. An isolated association between the tasks of emotion and behaviour was found, showing that the more frequently patients with 22q11.2DS perceive happiness where there is not, the less they exhibit aggressive behaviour.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:We describe the first radiographic clinic in the literature for DDH and how this novel clinic can significantly improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of service in a tertiary referral centre. AIMS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip was introduced in 2017 in our institution. We performed a detailed cost analysis to assess the economic savings made with the introduction of this new clinic. We assessed the efficiency of the service by identifying how many unnecessary outpatient visits were prevented. We also assessed the difference in times from referral to review between the two clinics. METHODS:Analysis of the clinic activity in 2017 was possible as all data was collected prospectively by the DDH CNS and stored in our database. Cost analysis was performed, and the savings made per patient along with the financial benefit to our institution was recorded. RESULTS:The new radiographic clinic reduced the cost of reviewing one patient by €162.51 per patient. There was a 73% discharge rate from the clinic which prevented 251 unnecessary patient visits to the outpatient department over the course of the year. There was a significant 11-day reduction in waiting times between referral and review when comparing the radiographic to the conventional clinic (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip has a significant effect on the efficiency and overall cost-effectiveness of service provision in a tertiary referral centre.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:Triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) involves periacetabular osteotomies of the ilium, ischium, and pubis to reorient the acetabulum. This operation is indicated in certain situations for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip, dysplastic neuromuscular hips, and for containment of the femoral head in cases of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study compares radiographic outcomes of patients who underwent TPO using two different techniques and describes a novel single-incision direct lateral approach. TPO was performed on 22 patients by the senior author. The first 10 patients underwent TPO through a single-incision anterolateral approach. The last 12 patients underwent TPO using the direct lateral approach. Preoperative and postoperative pelvic radiographs were reviewed for each patient, and the migration index and center-edge angle were recorded. RESULTS:The migration index and center-edge angle were evaluated and were not found to be significantly different between the anterolateral and direct lateral groups. The direct lateral approach is described. CONCLUSION:The direct lateral approach for TPO is equivalent to the anterolateral approach on radiographic evaluation. Advantages of the direct lateral approach include direct visualization of the ischial osteotomy, effective mobilization of the acetabulum, and safety of the sciatic nerve.