Detection of Pepsin in Oral Secretions of Infants with and without Laryngomalacia.
- 作者列表："Klimara MJ","Samuels TL","Johnston N","Chun RH","McCormick ME
OBJECTIVES:Laryngomalacia is a common cause of stridor in infants and is associated with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). Although pepsin in operative supraglottic lavage specimens is associated with severe laryngomalacia, detection of pepsin in oral secretions has not been demonstrated in an outpatient setting. METHODS:Children <2 years old with laryngomalacia diagnosed by flexible laryngoscopy and children without stridor were selected. Oral secretion samples were obtained in clinic from all subjects. Pepsin, IL-1β, and IL-8 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed to determine presence of LPR. RESULTS:Sixteen laryngomalacia and sixteen controls were enrolled. Pepsin was detected more frequently in oral secretions of patients with laryngomalacia (13/16) than in controls (2/16; P < .001). Four patients with laryngomalacia developed symptoms requiring supraglottoplasty. Presence and level of salivary pepsin was not significantly associated with need for surgical management, nor were the levels or presence of IL-1β or IL-8 significantly associated with presence or level of pepsin, diagnosis of laryngomalacia, or need for operative management. CONCLUSION:Pepsin in saliva appears to be associated with laryngomalacia, suggesting a role for salivary pepsin as a noninvasive marker of LPR in patients with laryngomalacia. Future studies will determine the utility of this test in laryngomalacia.
目的: 喉软化是婴幼儿喘鸣的常见原因，与咽喉反流 (LPR) 有关。虽然手术声门上灌洗标本中的胃蛋白酶与严重喉软化有关，但口腔分泌物中胃蛋白酶的检测尚未在门诊中得到证实。 方法: 选择 <2 岁经喉镜检查诊断为喉软化症的患儿和无喘鸣的患儿。临床获得所有受试者的口服分泌物样本。进行胃蛋白酶、il-1 β 和IL-8 酶联免疫吸附试验以确定LPR的存在。 结果: 共纳入 16 例喉软化症患者和 16 例对照者。胃蛋白酶在喉软化患者口腔分泌物中的检出率 (13/16) 高于对照组 (2/16; P <.001)。4 例喉软化患者出现需要声门上成形术的症状。唾液胃蛋白酶的存在和水平与手术治疗的需要无显著相关性，il-1 β 或IL-8 的水平或存在与胃蛋白酶的存在或水平、喉软化的诊断也无显著相关性。或者需要手术管理。 结论: 唾液中的胃蛋白酶似乎与喉软化有关，提示唾液胃蛋白酶作为喉软化患者LPR的无创标志物的作用。未来的研究将确定该试验在喉软化中的效用。
METHODS::Impairments in social cognition have been frequently described in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and are thought to be a hallmark of difficulties in social interactions. The present study addresses aspects that are critical for everyday social cognitive functioning but have received little attention so far. Sixteen children with 22q11.2DS and 22 controls completed 1 task of facial expression recognition, 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to faceless characters involved in visually presented social interactions, and 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to characters involved in aurally presented dialogues. All three tasks have in common to involve processing of emotions. All participants also completed two tasks of attention and two tasks of visual spatial perception, and their parents completed some scales regarding behavioural problems of their children. Patients performed worse than controls in all three tasks of emotion processing, and even worse in the second and third tasks. However, they performed above chance level in all three tasks, and the results were independent of IQ, age and gender. The analysis of error patterns suggests that patients tend to coarsely categorize situations as either attractive or repulsive and also that they have difficulties in differentiating emotions that are associated with threats. An isolated association between the tasks of emotion and behaviour was found, showing that the more frequently patients with 22q11.2DS perceive happiness where there is not, the less they exhibit aggressive behaviour.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:We describe the first radiographic clinic in the literature for DDH and how this novel clinic can significantly improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of service in a tertiary referral centre. AIMS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip was introduced in 2017 in our institution. We performed a detailed cost analysis to assess the economic savings made with the introduction of this new clinic. We assessed the efficiency of the service by identifying how many unnecessary outpatient visits were prevented. We also assessed the difference in times from referral to review between the two clinics. METHODS:Analysis of the clinic activity in 2017 was possible as all data was collected prospectively by the DDH CNS and stored in our database. Cost analysis was performed, and the savings made per patient along with the financial benefit to our institution was recorded. RESULTS:The new radiographic clinic reduced the cost of reviewing one patient by €162.51 per patient. There was a 73% discharge rate from the clinic which prevented 251 unnecessary patient visits to the outpatient department over the course of the year. There was a significant 11-day reduction in waiting times between referral and review when comparing the radiographic to the conventional clinic (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip has a significant effect on the efficiency and overall cost-effectiveness of service provision in a tertiary referral centre.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:Triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) involves periacetabular osteotomies of the ilium, ischium, and pubis to reorient the acetabulum. This operation is indicated in certain situations for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip, dysplastic neuromuscular hips, and for containment of the femoral head in cases of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study compares radiographic outcomes of patients who underwent TPO using two different techniques and describes a novel single-incision direct lateral approach. TPO was performed on 22 patients by the senior author. The first 10 patients underwent TPO through a single-incision anterolateral approach. The last 12 patients underwent TPO using the direct lateral approach. Preoperative and postoperative pelvic radiographs were reviewed for each patient, and the migration index and center-edge angle were recorded. RESULTS:The migration index and center-edge angle were evaluated and were not found to be significantly different between the anterolateral and direct lateral groups. The direct lateral approach is described. CONCLUSION:The direct lateral approach for TPO is equivalent to the anterolateral approach on radiographic evaluation. Advantages of the direct lateral approach include direct visualization of the ischial osteotomy, effective mobilization of the acetabulum, and safety of the sciatic nerve.