How to increase the accuracy of the diagnosis of the accessory bone of the foot?
- 作者列表："Szaro P","Polaczek M","Świątkowski J","Kocoń H
PURPOSE:The study was conducted to search for confident radiological signs in symptomatic cases of accessory bones. A normal accessory bone appearance on X-ray does not exclude that the accessory bone is the source of the discomfort; because of this, MRI examination can later be applied as part of the diagnosis. METHODS:We retrospectively analysed cases of 64 patients with recognized 70 symptomatic accessory bones of the foot. The average age was 29.2 (range 8-42) years. We included only patients with X-ray and MRI examinations. We investigated the following radiological features of the bone (structural and signal) in relation to soft tissue. RESULTS:The most constant symptoms identified in our study were bone marrow oedema (93%) and soft tissue oedema (77%). Changes in structures in which accessory bones were located or in adjacent structures to accessory bone were identified: tendon changes 51%, fluid adjacent to bone 51% and tenosynovitis 46%. MRI revealed changes in bone structure that are not seen on X-ray, including changes in contour (28%), sclerosis (3%) or osteonecrosis (3%). CONCLUSIONS:MRI plays an important role in determining whether accessory bones cause symptoms because it shows specific and accurate changes in accessory bone and/or in adjacent soft tissue.
目的: 本研究旨在寻找有症状的副骨病例的可靠放射学征象。X线上正常的副骨外观并不排除副骨是不适的来源; 正因为如此，MRI检查可作为诊断的一部分。 方法: 我们回顾性分析了 64 例患者，识别出 70 个症状性足副骨。平均年龄 29.2 岁 (范围 8-42 岁)。我们仅纳入了x线和MRI检查的患者。我们研究了以下与软组织相关的骨放射学特征 (结构和信号)。 结果: 我们研究中最常见的症状是骨髓水肿 (93%) 和软组织水肿 (77%)。确定了附属骨位于或附属骨邻近结构的结构变化: 肌腱变化 51%，邻近骨液体 51%，腱鞘炎 46%。MRI显示x线未发现的骨结构改变，包括轮廓改变 (28%) 、硬化 (3%) 或骨坏死 (3%)。 结论: MRI在确定副骨是否引起症状中起重要作用，因为它显示了副骨和/或邻近软组织的特异性和准确性变化。
METHODS::Impairments in social cognition have been frequently described in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and are thought to be a hallmark of difficulties in social interactions. The present study addresses aspects that are critical for everyday social cognitive functioning but have received little attention so far. Sixteen children with 22q11.2DS and 22 controls completed 1 task of facial expression recognition, 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to faceless characters involved in visually presented social interactions, and 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to characters involved in aurally presented dialogues. All three tasks have in common to involve processing of emotions. All participants also completed two tasks of attention and two tasks of visual spatial perception, and their parents completed some scales regarding behavioural problems of their children. Patients performed worse than controls in all three tasks of emotion processing, and even worse in the second and third tasks. However, they performed above chance level in all three tasks, and the results were independent of IQ, age and gender. The analysis of error patterns suggests that patients tend to coarsely categorize situations as either attractive or repulsive and also that they have difficulties in differentiating emotions that are associated with threats. An isolated association between the tasks of emotion and behaviour was found, showing that the more frequently patients with 22q11.2DS perceive happiness where there is not, the less they exhibit aggressive behaviour.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:We describe the first radiographic clinic in the literature for DDH and how this novel clinic can significantly improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of service in a tertiary referral centre. AIMS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip was introduced in 2017 in our institution. We performed a detailed cost analysis to assess the economic savings made with the introduction of this new clinic. We assessed the efficiency of the service by identifying how many unnecessary outpatient visits were prevented. We also assessed the difference in times from referral to review between the two clinics. METHODS:Analysis of the clinic activity in 2017 was possible as all data was collected prospectively by the DDH CNS and stored in our database. Cost analysis was performed, and the savings made per patient along with the financial benefit to our institution was recorded. RESULTS:The new radiographic clinic reduced the cost of reviewing one patient by €162.51 per patient. There was a 73% discharge rate from the clinic which prevented 251 unnecessary patient visits to the outpatient department over the course of the year. There was a significant 11-day reduction in waiting times between referral and review when comparing the radiographic to the conventional clinic (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip has a significant effect on the efficiency and overall cost-effectiveness of service provision in a tertiary referral centre.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:Triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) involves periacetabular osteotomies of the ilium, ischium, and pubis to reorient the acetabulum. This operation is indicated in certain situations for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip, dysplastic neuromuscular hips, and for containment of the femoral head in cases of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study compares radiographic outcomes of patients who underwent TPO using two different techniques and describes a novel single-incision direct lateral approach. TPO was performed on 22 patients by the senior author. The first 10 patients underwent TPO through a single-incision anterolateral approach. The last 12 patients underwent TPO using the direct lateral approach. Preoperative and postoperative pelvic radiographs were reviewed for each patient, and the migration index and center-edge angle were recorded. RESULTS:The migration index and center-edge angle were evaluated and were not found to be significantly different between the anterolateral and direct lateral groups. The direct lateral approach is described. CONCLUSION:The direct lateral approach for TPO is equivalent to the anterolateral approach on radiographic evaluation. Advantages of the direct lateral approach include direct visualization of the ischial osteotomy, effective mobilization of the acetabulum, and safety of the sciatic nerve.