- 作者列表："Benjamin RH","Ethen MK","Canfield MA","Mitchell LE
PURPOSE:Maternal body mass index (BMI) is inversely associated with gastroschisis, but a causal relationship has not been established. As data demonstrating that a change in exposure status is related to a change in the frequency of the outcome can add to the evidence for causality, we conducted a case-control study of change in maternal BMI, assessed using interpregnancy change in BMI (IPC-BMI), and gastroschisis. METHODS:Data for 258 gastroschisis cases and 2561 controls were obtained from the Texas Birth Defects Registry and vital records (2006-2012). Logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted association between IPC-BMI and gastroschisis. RESULTS:The continuous IPC-BMI variable was inversely associated with gastroschisis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.86, 0.95). When assessed as a six-level categorical variable, with weight stable women as the referent, the odds of gastroschisis were higher following a BMI decrease of greater than 1 unit (aOR = 1.37, 95% CI: 0.91, 2.06) and lower after a BMI increase of ≥3 units (aOR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.42, 0.94). CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that maternal change in BMI is associated with gastroschisis and, thus, add to the epidemiological evidence that can be used to inform our understanding of the relationship between BMI and gastroschisis.
目的: 母亲体重指数 (BMI) 与腹裂呈负相关，但因果关系尚未确定。由于数据表明暴露状态的变化与结果频率的变化相关，可以增加因果关系的证据，我们进行了一项母亲BMI变化的病例对照研究，使用BMI (IPC-BMI) 和腹裂的妊娠间期变化进行评估。 方法: 从德克萨斯出生缺陷登记和生命记录 (258-2561) 中获得 2006 例腹裂病例和 2012 例对照的数据。采用Logistic回归估计IPC-BMI与腹裂的校正相关性。 结果: 连续的IPC-BMI变量与腹裂呈负相关 (校正比值比 [aOR] = 0.90，95% 置信区间 [CI]: 0.86，0.95)。当评估为六级分类变量时，以体重稳定的女性为参照物，BMI下降大于 1 单位后腹裂的几率较高 (aOR = 1.37，95% CI: 0.91，2.06) 和BMI增加 ≥ 3 单位后更低 (aOR = 0.62，95% CI:0.42 、 0.94)。 结论: 我们的研究结果表明，母亲BMI的变化与腹裂相关，因此，增加了流行病学证据，可用于告知我们对BMI与腹裂之间关系的理解。
METHODS::Impairments in social cognition have been frequently described in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and are thought to be a hallmark of difficulties in social interactions. The present study addresses aspects that are critical for everyday social cognitive functioning but have received little attention so far. Sixteen children with 22q11.2DS and 22 controls completed 1 task of facial expression recognition, 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to faceless characters involved in visually presented social interactions, and 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to characters involved in aurally presented dialogues. All three tasks have in common to involve processing of emotions. All participants also completed two tasks of attention and two tasks of visual spatial perception, and their parents completed some scales regarding behavioural problems of their children. Patients performed worse than controls in all three tasks of emotion processing, and even worse in the second and third tasks. However, they performed above chance level in all three tasks, and the results were independent of IQ, age and gender. The analysis of error patterns suggests that patients tend to coarsely categorize situations as either attractive or repulsive and also that they have difficulties in differentiating emotions that are associated with threats. An isolated association between the tasks of emotion and behaviour was found, showing that the more frequently patients with 22q11.2DS perceive happiness where there is not, the less they exhibit aggressive behaviour.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:We describe the first radiographic clinic in the literature for DDH and how this novel clinic can significantly improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of service in a tertiary referral centre. AIMS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip was introduced in 2017 in our institution. We performed a detailed cost analysis to assess the economic savings made with the introduction of this new clinic. We assessed the efficiency of the service by identifying how many unnecessary outpatient visits were prevented. We also assessed the difference in times from referral to review between the two clinics. METHODS:Analysis of the clinic activity in 2017 was possible as all data was collected prospectively by the DDH CNS and stored in our database. Cost analysis was performed, and the savings made per patient along with the financial benefit to our institution was recorded. RESULTS:The new radiographic clinic reduced the cost of reviewing one patient by €162.51 per patient. There was a 73% discharge rate from the clinic which prevented 251 unnecessary patient visits to the outpatient department over the course of the year. There was a significant 11-day reduction in waiting times between referral and review when comparing the radiographic to the conventional clinic (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip has a significant effect on the efficiency and overall cost-effectiveness of service provision in a tertiary referral centre.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:Triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) involves periacetabular osteotomies of the ilium, ischium, and pubis to reorient the acetabulum. This operation is indicated in certain situations for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip, dysplastic neuromuscular hips, and for containment of the femoral head in cases of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study compares radiographic outcomes of patients who underwent TPO using two different techniques and describes a novel single-incision direct lateral approach. TPO was performed on 22 patients by the senior author. The first 10 patients underwent TPO through a single-incision anterolateral approach. The last 12 patients underwent TPO using the direct lateral approach. Preoperative and postoperative pelvic radiographs were reviewed for each patient, and the migration index and center-edge angle were recorded. RESULTS:The migration index and center-edge angle were evaluated and were not found to be significantly different between the anterolateral and direct lateral groups. The direct lateral approach is described. CONCLUSION:The direct lateral approach for TPO is equivalent to the anterolateral approach on radiographic evaluation. Advantages of the direct lateral approach include direct visualization of the ischial osteotomy, effective mobilization of the acetabulum, and safety of the sciatic nerve.