Challenges in the Successful Reconstruction of Cleft Lip and Palate: Managing the Nasomaxillary Deformity in Adolescence.
- 作者列表："Posnick JC","Kinard BE
:The surgical techniques and execution of primary cleft lip and palate repair are no longer the greatest challenge to achieving successful rehabilitation for those born with facial clefting (i.e., bilateral and unilateral cleft lip and palate). Despite a surgeon's best efforts, when cleft palate repair is carried out during infancy, by the mixed dentition, a majority will demonstrate nasomaxillary deficiency. The cleft team's commitment to a family under their care is to ensure that the newborn reaches adulthood reconstructed without need for special regard to their original birth malformation. Guiding principles are provided for the accurate diagnosis and reliable reconstruction of the bilateral and unilateral cleft lip and palate adolescent/adult who presents with nasomaxillary deficiency and any residual oronasal fistula, bony defects, cleft dental gap(s), nasal obstructions, and associated facial dysmorphology. Successful orthognathic surgery provides a stable foundation on which any remaining soft-tissue cleft lip or cleft nasal deformities can be accurately assessed and then reconstructed.
: 原发性唇腭裂修复术的手术技术和执行不再是面部裂 (i) 患者获得成功康复的最大挑战。e.，双侧和单侧唇腭裂)。尽管外科医生尽了最大努力，但当腭裂修复在婴儿期进行时，通过混合牙列，大多数会表现出鼻腋窝缺陷。裂队对他们照顾的家庭的承诺是确保新生儿达到成年重建，而不需要特别考虑他们原来的出生畸形。指导原则s提供的准确诊断s i s可靠侦察s施工的双边和单边唇腭裂adole s美分/成年人前s耳鼻喉科s na s omaxillary缺乏和任何re s isdual orona s al fi s tula，骨缺损s、裂牙间隙 (s) 、na s al ob s结构s和a s s ociated面部dy s形态。成功的正颌手术提供了一个稳定的基础，在此基础上，可以准确评估任何剩余的软组织唇裂或鼻裂畸形，然后进行重建。
METHODS::Impairments in social cognition have been frequently described in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and are thought to be a hallmark of difficulties in social interactions. The present study addresses aspects that are critical for everyday social cognitive functioning but have received little attention so far. Sixteen children with 22q11.2DS and 22 controls completed 1 task of facial expression recognition, 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to faceless characters involved in visually presented social interactions, and 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to characters involved in aurally presented dialogues. All three tasks have in common to involve processing of emotions. All participants also completed two tasks of attention and two tasks of visual spatial perception, and their parents completed some scales regarding behavioural problems of their children. Patients performed worse than controls in all three tasks of emotion processing, and even worse in the second and third tasks. However, they performed above chance level in all three tasks, and the results were independent of IQ, age and gender. The analysis of error patterns suggests that patients tend to coarsely categorize situations as either attractive or repulsive and also that they have difficulties in differentiating emotions that are associated with threats. An isolated association between the tasks of emotion and behaviour was found, showing that the more frequently patients with 22q11.2DS perceive happiness where there is not, the less they exhibit aggressive behaviour.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:We describe the first radiographic clinic in the literature for DDH and how this novel clinic can significantly improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of service in a tertiary referral centre. AIMS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip was introduced in 2017 in our institution. We performed a detailed cost analysis to assess the economic savings made with the introduction of this new clinic. We assessed the efficiency of the service by identifying how many unnecessary outpatient visits were prevented. We also assessed the difference in times from referral to review between the two clinics. METHODS:Analysis of the clinic activity in 2017 was possible as all data was collected prospectively by the DDH CNS and stored in our database. Cost analysis was performed, and the savings made per patient along with the financial benefit to our institution was recorded. RESULTS:The new radiographic clinic reduced the cost of reviewing one patient by €162.51 per patient. There was a 73% discharge rate from the clinic which prevented 251 unnecessary patient visits to the outpatient department over the course of the year. There was a significant 11-day reduction in waiting times between referral and review when comparing the radiographic to the conventional clinic (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip has a significant effect on the efficiency and overall cost-effectiveness of service provision in a tertiary referral centre.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:Triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) involves periacetabular osteotomies of the ilium, ischium, and pubis to reorient the acetabulum. This operation is indicated in certain situations for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip, dysplastic neuromuscular hips, and for containment of the femoral head in cases of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study compares radiographic outcomes of patients who underwent TPO using two different techniques and describes a novel single-incision direct lateral approach. TPO was performed on 22 patients by the senior author. The first 10 patients underwent TPO through a single-incision anterolateral approach. The last 12 patients underwent TPO using the direct lateral approach. Preoperative and postoperative pelvic radiographs were reviewed for each patient, and the migration index and center-edge angle were recorded. RESULTS:The migration index and center-edge angle were evaluated and were not found to be significantly different between the anterolateral and direct lateral groups. The direct lateral approach is described. CONCLUSION:The direct lateral approach for TPO is equivalent to the anterolateral approach on radiographic evaluation. Advantages of the direct lateral approach include direct visualization of the ischial osteotomy, effective mobilization of the acetabulum, and safety of the sciatic nerve.