A novel variant of IHH in a Chinese family with brachydactyly type 1.
一个中国短指畸形 1 型家系的IHH新变异。
- 作者列表："Yang Q","Wang J","Tian X","Shen F","Lan J","Zhang Q","Fan X","Yi S","Li M","Shen Y
BACKGROUND:Brachydactyly type A1(BDA-1) is an autosomal dominant disorder which is caused by heterozygous pathogenic variants in a specific region of the N-terminal active fragment of Indian Hedgehog (IHH). The disorder is mainly characterized by shortening or missing of the middle phalanges. In this study, Our purpose is to identify the pathogenic variations associated with BDA-1 involved in a five-generation Chinese family. METHODS:A BDA-1 family with 8 affected and 14 unaffected family members was recruited. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed to identify the pathogenic variant in the proband, and which was later confirmed and segregated by Sanger sequencing. The significance of variants were assessed using several molecular and bioinformatics analysis methods. RESULTS:We uncovered a novel heterozygous missense variant c.299A > G (p.D100G) at the mutational hotspot of IHH gene following whole-exome sequencing of a Chinese family with BDA-1. The variant co-segregated with BDA-1 in the pedigree, showed 100% penetrance for phalange phenotype with variable expressivity. CONCLUSIONS:In conclusion, this study reports a five-generation Chinese family with BDA-1 due to a novel pathogenic variant (c.299A > G (p.D100G)) of IHH and expands the clinical and genetic spectrum of BDA-1.
背景: 短指畸形A1 型 (BDA-1) 是一种常染色体显性遗传病，由印度刺猬 (IHH) N端活性片段特定区域的杂合致病变异引起。该障碍的主要特征是中指骨缩短或缺失。在这项研究中，我们的目的是确定与五代中国家族中涉及的BDA-1 相关的致病变异。 方法: 招募了一个有 8 名受影响和 14 名未受影响的家庭成员的BDA-1 家庭。进行全外显子组测序 (WES) 以鉴定先证者中的致病变异，随后通过Sanger测序确认并分离。使用几种分子和生物信息学分析方法评估变异的意义。 结果: 我们发现了一个新的杂合子错义变异c.299A> g (p.D100G) 在一个中国BDA-1 家系的全外显子测序后的IHH基因突变热点。该变异与系谱中的BDA-1 共分离，显示指骨表型的penetr率为 100%，表现度可变。 结论: 综上所述，本研究报告五代家系的BDA-1 由于一种致病变体 (c.299A > G (p.D100G) 的IHH并扩展了BDA-1 的临床和遗传谱。
METHODS::Impairments in social cognition have been frequently described in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and are thought to be a hallmark of difficulties in social interactions. The present study addresses aspects that are critical for everyday social cognitive functioning but have received little attention so far. Sixteen children with 22q11.2DS and 22 controls completed 1 task of facial expression recognition, 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to faceless characters involved in visually presented social interactions, and 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to characters involved in aurally presented dialogues. All three tasks have in common to involve processing of emotions. All participants also completed two tasks of attention and two tasks of visual spatial perception, and their parents completed some scales regarding behavioural problems of their children. Patients performed worse than controls in all three tasks of emotion processing, and even worse in the second and third tasks. However, they performed above chance level in all three tasks, and the results were independent of IQ, age and gender. The analysis of error patterns suggests that patients tend to coarsely categorize situations as either attractive or repulsive and also that they have difficulties in differentiating emotions that are associated with threats. An isolated association between the tasks of emotion and behaviour was found, showing that the more frequently patients with 22q11.2DS perceive happiness where there is not, the less they exhibit aggressive behaviour.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:We describe the first radiographic clinic in the literature for DDH and how this novel clinic can significantly improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of service in a tertiary referral centre. AIMS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip was introduced in 2017 in our institution. We performed a detailed cost analysis to assess the economic savings made with the introduction of this new clinic. We assessed the efficiency of the service by identifying how many unnecessary outpatient visits were prevented. We also assessed the difference in times from referral to review between the two clinics. METHODS:Analysis of the clinic activity in 2017 was possible as all data was collected prospectively by the DDH CNS and stored in our database. Cost analysis was performed, and the savings made per patient along with the financial benefit to our institution was recorded. RESULTS:The new radiographic clinic reduced the cost of reviewing one patient by €162.51 per patient. There was a 73% discharge rate from the clinic which prevented 251 unnecessary patient visits to the outpatient department over the course of the year. There was a significant 11-day reduction in waiting times between referral and review when comparing the radiographic to the conventional clinic (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip has a significant effect on the efficiency and overall cost-effectiveness of service provision in a tertiary referral centre.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:Triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) involves periacetabular osteotomies of the ilium, ischium, and pubis to reorient the acetabulum. This operation is indicated in certain situations for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip, dysplastic neuromuscular hips, and for containment of the femoral head in cases of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study compares radiographic outcomes of patients who underwent TPO using two different techniques and describes a novel single-incision direct lateral approach. TPO was performed on 22 patients by the senior author. The first 10 patients underwent TPO through a single-incision anterolateral approach. The last 12 patients underwent TPO using the direct lateral approach. Preoperative and postoperative pelvic radiographs were reviewed for each patient, and the migration index and center-edge angle were recorded. RESULTS:The migration index and center-edge angle were evaluated and were not found to be significantly different between the anterolateral and direct lateral groups. The direct lateral approach is described. CONCLUSION:The direct lateral approach for TPO is equivalent to the anterolateral approach on radiographic evaluation. Advantages of the direct lateral approach include direct visualization of the ischial osteotomy, effective mobilization of the acetabulum, and safety of the sciatic nerve.