What Do Animal Models Teach Us About Congenital Craniofacial Defects?
- 作者列表："Ibarra BA","Atit R
:The formation of the head and face is a complex process which involves many different signaling cues regulating the migration, differentiation, and proliferation of the neural crest. This highly complex process is very error-prone, resulting in craniofacial defects in nearly 10,000 births in the United States annually. Due to the highly conserved mechanisms of craniofacial development, animal models are widely used to understand the pathogenesis of various human diseases and assist in the diagnosis and generation of preventative therapies and treatments. Here, we provide a brief background of craniofacial development and discuss several rare diseases affecting craniofacial bone development. We focus on rare congenital diseases of the cranial bone, facial jaw bones, and two classes of diseases, ciliopathies and RASopathies. Studying the animal models of these rare diseases sheds light not only on the etiology and pathology of each disease, but also provides meaningful insights towards the mechanisms which regulate normal development of the head and face.
: 头面部的形成是一个复杂的过程，涉及许多不同的信号线索，调节神经嵴的迁移、分化和增殖。这个高度复杂的过程非常容易出错，导致美国每年近 10,000 名新生儿出现颅面缺损。由于颅面发育的高度保守的机制，动物模型被广泛用于了解人类各种疾病的发病机制，并协助诊断和预防治疗的产生。在此，我们提供了颅面发育的简要背景，并讨论了影响颅面骨发育的几种罕见疾病。我们关注颅骨、面部颌骨的罕见先天性疾病，以及纤毛病和鼻病两类疾病。研究这些罕见疾病的动物模型不仅揭示了每种疾病的病因和病理，而且为调节头面部正常发育的机制提供了有意义的见解。
METHODS::Impairments in social cognition have been frequently described in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and are thought to be a hallmark of difficulties in social interactions. The present study addresses aspects that are critical for everyday social cognitive functioning but have received little attention so far. Sixteen children with 22q11.2DS and 22 controls completed 1 task of facial expression recognition, 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to faceless characters involved in visually presented social interactions, and 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to characters involved in aurally presented dialogues. All three tasks have in common to involve processing of emotions. All participants also completed two tasks of attention and two tasks of visual spatial perception, and their parents completed some scales regarding behavioural problems of their children. Patients performed worse than controls in all three tasks of emotion processing, and even worse in the second and third tasks. However, they performed above chance level in all three tasks, and the results were independent of IQ, age and gender. The analysis of error patterns suggests that patients tend to coarsely categorize situations as either attractive or repulsive and also that they have difficulties in differentiating emotions that are associated with threats. An isolated association between the tasks of emotion and behaviour was found, showing that the more frequently patients with 22q11.2DS perceive happiness where there is not, the less they exhibit aggressive behaviour.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:We describe the first radiographic clinic in the literature for DDH and how this novel clinic can significantly improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of service in a tertiary referral centre. AIMS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip was introduced in 2017 in our institution. We performed a detailed cost analysis to assess the economic savings made with the introduction of this new clinic. We assessed the efficiency of the service by identifying how many unnecessary outpatient visits were prevented. We also assessed the difference in times from referral to review between the two clinics. METHODS:Analysis of the clinic activity in 2017 was possible as all data was collected prospectively by the DDH CNS and stored in our database. Cost analysis was performed, and the savings made per patient along with the financial benefit to our institution was recorded. RESULTS:The new radiographic clinic reduced the cost of reviewing one patient by €162.51 per patient. There was a 73% discharge rate from the clinic which prevented 251 unnecessary patient visits to the outpatient department over the course of the year. There was a significant 11-day reduction in waiting times between referral and review when comparing the radiographic to the conventional clinic (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip has a significant effect on the efficiency and overall cost-effectiveness of service provision in a tertiary referral centre.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:Triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) involves periacetabular osteotomies of the ilium, ischium, and pubis to reorient the acetabulum. This operation is indicated in certain situations for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip, dysplastic neuromuscular hips, and for containment of the femoral head in cases of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study compares radiographic outcomes of patients who underwent TPO using two different techniques and describes a novel single-incision direct lateral approach. TPO was performed on 22 patients by the senior author. The first 10 patients underwent TPO through a single-incision anterolateral approach. The last 12 patients underwent TPO using the direct lateral approach. Preoperative and postoperative pelvic radiographs were reviewed for each patient, and the migration index and center-edge angle were recorded. RESULTS:The migration index and center-edge angle were evaluated and were not found to be significantly different between the anterolateral and direct lateral groups. The direct lateral approach is described. CONCLUSION:The direct lateral approach for TPO is equivalent to the anterolateral approach on radiographic evaluation. Advantages of the direct lateral approach include direct visualization of the ischial osteotomy, effective mobilization of the acetabulum, and safety of the sciatic nerve.