Tarsal tunnel syndrome caused by posterior facet talocalcaneal coalition: A case report.
后关节突距角联合致跗骨隧道综合征 1 例。
- 作者列表："Hong CH","Lee HS","Lee WS","Kim HK","Won SH","Yeo ED","Jung KJ","Ryu A","Kang JK","Lee DW","Kim WJ
RATIONALE:Tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS) is a compressive neuropathy of the posterior tibial nerve and its branches. Tarsal coalition is defined as a fibrous, cartilaginous, or osseous bridging of 2 or more tarsal bones. TTS with tarsal coalition is uncommon. Here, we present a rare example of successful surgical management of TTS with posterior facet talocalcaneal coalition. PATIENT CONCERNS:A 74-year-old woman presented with hypoesthesia, numbness, and an intermittent tingling sensation on the plantar area over the right forefoot to the middle foot area. The hypoesthesia and paresthesia of the right foot began 6 years previously and were severe along the lateral plantar aspect. The symptoms were mild at rest and increased during daily activities. Tinel sign was positive along the posteroinferior aspect of the medial malleolus. DIAGNOSIS:Lateral ankle radiography showed joint-space narrowing and sclerotic bony changes with a deformed C-sign and humpback sign. Oblique coronal and sagittal computed tomography revealed an irregular medial posterior facet, partial coalition, narrowing, and subcortical cyst formation of the posterior subtalar joint. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an abnormal posterior talocalcaneal coalition compressing the posterior tibia nerve. Electromyography and nerve conduction velocity studies were performed, and the findings indicated that there was an incomplete lesion of the right plantar nerve, especially of the lateral plantar nerve, around the ankle level. INTERVENTIONS:Surgical decompression was performed. Intraoperatively, the lateral plantar nerve exhibited fibrotic changes and tightening below the posterior facet talocalcaneal coalition. The coalition was excised, and the lateral plantar nerve was released with soft-tissue dissection. OUTCOMES:The patient's symptoms of tingling sensation and hypoesthesia were almost relieved at 4 months postoperatively, but she complained of paresthesia with an itching sensation when the skin of the plantar area was touched. The paresthesia had disappeared almost completely at 8 months after surgery. She had no recurrence of symptoms at the 1-year follow-up. LESSONS:The TTS with tarsal coalition is rare. Supportive history and physical examination are essential for diagnosis. Plain radiographs and computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging are helpful to determine the cause of TTS and verify the tarsal coalition. After diagnosis, surgical excision of the coalition may be appropriate for management with a good outcome.
原理: 跗骨隧道综合征 (TTS) 是胫后神经及其分支的压迫性神经病。跗骨联合定义为 2 个或更多跗骨的纤维性、软骨性或骨性桥接。TTS与跗骨联盟是不常见的。在此，我们介绍了一个罕见的成功手术治疗TTS的例子，后关节突距关节联盟。 患者顾虑: 一位 74 岁的女性，表现为感觉减退、麻木，右前足至中足区域的足底区域有间歇性刺痛。右足感觉减退和感觉异常开始于 6 年前，沿足底外侧严重。休息时症状轻微，日常活动时症状加重。Tinel征沿内踝后下侧为阳性。 诊断: 踝关节外侧造影显示关节-spa c e变窄，s c leroti c骨性c hanges，C畸形，humpba c k征。斜冠状位和矢状位计算机断层扫描显示后距下关节不规则的后内侧关节突、部分联合、变窄和皮质下囊肿形成。磁共振成像显示距后神经联合压迫胫骨后神经异常。进行肌电图和神经传导速度检查，结果表明踝关节周围有右足底神经，尤其是足底外侧神经的不完全病变。 干预措施: 进行手术减压。术中，足底外侧神经出现纤维化变化，并在距后关节突联合下方收紧。切除联盟，松解足底外侧神经行软组织剥离。 结果: 患者术后 4 个月时刺痛和感觉减退的症状几乎缓解，但当触摸足底区域的皮肤时，她主诉感觉异常伴瘙痒。术后 8 个月时感觉异常几乎完全消失。在 1 年的随访中，她没有症状复发。 教训: TTS与tarsal联盟是罕见的。支持性病史和体格检查对诊断至关重要。平片和计算机断层扫描或磁共振成像有助于确定TTS的病因并验证跗骨联合。诊断后，手术切除联盟可能是适当的管理与一个良好的结果。
METHODS::Impairments in social cognition have been frequently described in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and are thought to be a hallmark of difficulties in social interactions. The present study addresses aspects that are critical for everyday social cognitive functioning but have received little attention so far. Sixteen children with 22q11.2DS and 22 controls completed 1 task of facial expression recognition, 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to faceless characters involved in visually presented social interactions, and 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to characters involved in aurally presented dialogues. All three tasks have in common to involve processing of emotions. All participants also completed two tasks of attention and two tasks of visual spatial perception, and their parents completed some scales regarding behavioural problems of their children. Patients performed worse than controls in all three tasks of emotion processing, and even worse in the second and third tasks. However, they performed above chance level in all three tasks, and the results were independent of IQ, age and gender. The analysis of error patterns suggests that patients tend to coarsely categorize situations as either attractive or repulsive and also that they have difficulties in differentiating emotions that are associated with threats. An isolated association between the tasks of emotion and behaviour was found, showing that the more frequently patients with 22q11.2DS perceive happiness where there is not, the less they exhibit aggressive behaviour.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:We describe the first radiographic clinic in the literature for DDH and how this novel clinic can significantly improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of service in a tertiary referral centre. AIMS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip was introduced in 2017 in our institution. We performed a detailed cost analysis to assess the economic savings made with the introduction of this new clinic. We assessed the efficiency of the service by identifying how many unnecessary outpatient visits were prevented. We also assessed the difference in times from referral to review between the two clinics. METHODS:Analysis of the clinic activity in 2017 was possible as all data was collected prospectively by the DDH CNS and stored in our database. Cost analysis was performed, and the savings made per patient along with the financial benefit to our institution was recorded. RESULTS:The new radiographic clinic reduced the cost of reviewing one patient by €162.51 per patient. There was a 73% discharge rate from the clinic which prevented 251 unnecessary patient visits to the outpatient department over the course of the year. There was a significant 11-day reduction in waiting times between referral and review when comparing the radiographic to the conventional clinic (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip has a significant effect on the efficiency and overall cost-effectiveness of service provision in a tertiary referral centre.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:Triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) involves periacetabular osteotomies of the ilium, ischium, and pubis to reorient the acetabulum. This operation is indicated in certain situations for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip, dysplastic neuromuscular hips, and for containment of the femoral head in cases of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study compares radiographic outcomes of patients who underwent TPO using two different techniques and describes a novel single-incision direct lateral approach. TPO was performed on 22 patients by the senior author. The first 10 patients underwent TPO through a single-incision anterolateral approach. The last 12 patients underwent TPO using the direct lateral approach. Preoperative and postoperative pelvic radiographs were reviewed for each patient, and the migration index and center-edge angle were recorded. RESULTS:The migration index and center-edge angle were evaluated and were not found to be significantly different between the anterolateral and direct lateral groups. The direct lateral approach is described. CONCLUSION:The direct lateral approach for TPO is equivalent to the anterolateral approach on radiographic evaluation. Advantages of the direct lateral approach include direct visualization of the ischial osteotomy, effective mobilization of the acetabulum, and safety of the sciatic nerve.