Recessive mutations in SCYL2 cause a novel syndromic form of arthrogryposis in humans.
- 作者列表："Seidahmed MZ","Al-Kindi A","Alsaif HS","Miqdad A","Alabbad N","Alfifi A","Abdelbasit OB","Alhussein K","Alsamadi A","Ibrahim N","Al-Futaisi A","Al-Maawali A","Alkuraya FS
:Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) is an important birth defect with a significant genetic contribution. Many syndromic forms of AMC have been described, but remain unsolved at the molecular level. In this report, we describe a novel syndromic form of AMC in two multiplex consanguineous families from Saudi Arabia and Oman. The phenotype is highly consistent, and comprises neurogenic arthrogryposis, microcephaly, brain malformation (absent corpus callosum), optic atrophy, limb fractures, profound global developmental delay, and early lethality. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a different homozygous truncating variant in SCYL2 in each of the two families. SCYL2 is a component of clathrin-coated vesicles, and deficiency of its mouse ortholog results in a severe neurological phenotype that largely recapitulates the phenotype observed in our patients. Our results suggest that severe neurogenic arthrogryposis with brain malformation is the human phenotypic consequence of SCYL2 loss of function mutations.
: 先天性多发性节肢动物 (AMC) 是一种重要的出生缺陷，具有显著的遗传贡献。AMC的许多综合征形式已被描述，但在分子水平上仍未解决。在本报告中，我们描述了来自沙特阿拉伯和阿曼的两个多重近亲家庭的一种新型AMC综合征形式。表型高度一致，包括神经源性关节突、小头畸形、脑畸形 (胼胝体缺失) 、视神经萎缩、四肢骨折、深刻的整体发育迟缓和早期致死。全外显子组测序发现两个家系的SCYL2 中存在不同的纯合截短变异体。SCYL2 是网格蛋白包被囊泡的成分，其小鼠直系同源物的缺乏导致严重的神经表型，在很大程度上概括了我们患者中观察到的表型。我们的结果表明，伴有脑畸形的严重神经源性关节挛缩是SCYL2 功能缺失突变的人类表型结果。
METHODS::Impairments in social cognition have been frequently described in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and are thought to be a hallmark of difficulties in social interactions. The present study addresses aspects that are critical for everyday social cognitive functioning but have received little attention so far. Sixteen children with 22q11.2DS and 22 controls completed 1 task of facial expression recognition, 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to faceless characters involved in visually presented social interactions, and 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to characters involved in aurally presented dialogues. All three tasks have in common to involve processing of emotions. All participants also completed two tasks of attention and two tasks of visual spatial perception, and their parents completed some scales regarding behavioural problems of their children. Patients performed worse than controls in all three tasks of emotion processing, and even worse in the second and third tasks. However, they performed above chance level in all three tasks, and the results were independent of IQ, age and gender. The analysis of error patterns suggests that patients tend to coarsely categorize situations as either attractive or repulsive and also that they have difficulties in differentiating emotions that are associated with threats. An isolated association between the tasks of emotion and behaviour was found, showing that the more frequently patients with 22q11.2DS perceive happiness where there is not, the less they exhibit aggressive behaviour.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:We describe the first radiographic clinic in the literature for DDH and how this novel clinic can significantly improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of service in a tertiary referral centre. AIMS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip was introduced in 2017 in our institution. We performed a detailed cost analysis to assess the economic savings made with the introduction of this new clinic. We assessed the efficiency of the service by identifying how many unnecessary outpatient visits were prevented. We also assessed the difference in times from referral to review between the two clinics. METHODS:Analysis of the clinic activity in 2017 was possible as all data was collected prospectively by the DDH CNS and stored in our database. Cost analysis was performed, and the savings made per patient along with the financial benefit to our institution was recorded. RESULTS:The new radiographic clinic reduced the cost of reviewing one patient by €162.51 per patient. There was a 73% discharge rate from the clinic which prevented 251 unnecessary patient visits to the outpatient department over the course of the year. There was a significant 11-day reduction in waiting times between referral and review when comparing the radiographic to the conventional clinic (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip has a significant effect on the efficiency and overall cost-effectiveness of service provision in a tertiary referral centre.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:Triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) involves periacetabular osteotomies of the ilium, ischium, and pubis to reorient the acetabulum. This operation is indicated in certain situations for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip, dysplastic neuromuscular hips, and for containment of the femoral head in cases of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study compares radiographic outcomes of patients who underwent TPO using two different techniques and describes a novel single-incision direct lateral approach. TPO was performed on 22 patients by the senior author. The first 10 patients underwent TPO through a single-incision anterolateral approach. The last 12 patients underwent TPO using the direct lateral approach. Preoperative and postoperative pelvic radiographs were reviewed for each patient, and the migration index and center-edge angle were recorded. RESULTS:The migration index and center-edge angle were evaluated and were not found to be significantly different between the anterolateral and direct lateral groups. The direct lateral approach is described. CONCLUSION:The direct lateral approach for TPO is equivalent to the anterolateral approach on radiographic evaluation. Advantages of the direct lateral approach include direct visualization of the ischial osteotomy, effective mobilization of the acetabulum, and safety of the sciatic nerve.