Genome-wide association analysis for lethal brachycephalic-like facial dysmorphia in Labrador Retrievers.
- 作者列表："Vasiliadis D","Dierks C","Hoffmann H","Hellige M","Hewicker-Trautwein M","Metzger J","Distl O
:A GWAS was performed for inborn X-linked facial dysmorphia with severe growth retardation in Labrador Retrievers. This lethal condition was mapped on the X chromosome at 17-21 Mb and supported by eight SNPs in complete LD. Dams of affected male puppies were heterozygous for the significantly associated SNPs and male affected puppies carried the associated alleles hemizygously. In the near vicinity to the associated region, RPS6KA3 was identified as a candidate gene causing facial dysmorphia in humans and mice known as Coffin-Lowry syndrome. Haplotype analysis showed significant association with the phenotypes of all 18 animals under study. This haplotype was validated through normal male progeny from a dam with the not-associated haplotype on both X chromosomes but male affected full-sibs with the associated haplotype.
: 对拉布拉多猎犬先天性X连锁面部畸形伴严重生长迟缓进行GWAS。这种致死条件定位在 17-21 Mb的X染色体上，并得到完全LD中 8 个SNPs的支持。受累雄性幼犬的母狗为显著相关SNPs的杂合子，雄性受累幼犬半合子携带相关等位基因。在相关区域附近，RPS6KA3 被确定为引起人和小鼠面部畸形的候选基因，称为Coffin-Lowry综合征。单倍型分析显示与所有 18 只研究动物的表型显著相关。该单倍型通过来自dam的正常雄性后代进行验证，在两个X染色体上具有未相关的单倍型，但男性影响了具有相关单倍型的全同胞。
METHODS::Impairments in social cognition have been frequently described in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and are thought to be a hallmark of difficulties in social interactions. The present study addresses aspects that are critical for everyday social cognitive functioning but have received little attention so far. Sixteen children with 22q11.2DS and 22 controls completed 1 task of facial expression recognition, 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to faceless characters involved in visually presented social interactions, and 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to characters involved in aurally presented dialogues. All three tasks have in common to involve processing of emotions. All participants also completed two tasks of attention and two tasks of visual spatial perception, and their parents completed some scales regarding behavioural problems of their children. Patients performed worse than controls in all three tasks of emotion processing, and even worse in the second and third tasks. However, they performed above chance level in all three tasks, and the results were independent of IQ, age and gender. The analysis of error patterns suggests that patients tend to coarsely categorize situations as either attractive or repulsive and also that they have difficulties in differentiating emotions that are associated with threats. An isolated association between the tasks of emotion and behaviour was found, showing that the more frequently patients with 22q11.2DS perceive happiness where there is not, the less they exhibit aggressive behaviour.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:We describe the first radiographic clinic in the literature for DDH and how this novel clinic can significantly improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of service in a tertiary referral centre. AIMS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip was introduced in 2017 in our institution. We performed a detailed cost analysis to assess the economic savings made with the introduction of this new clinic. We assessed the efficiency of the service by identifying how many unnecessary outpatient visits were prevented. We also assessed the difference in times from referral to review between the two clinics. METHODS:Analysis of the clinic activity in 2017 was possible as all data was collected prospectively by the DDH CNS and stored in our database. Cost analysis was performed, and the savings made per patient along with the financial benefit to our institution was recorded. RESULTS:The new radiographic clinic reduced the cost of reviewing one patient by €162.51 per patient. There was a 73% discharge rate from the clinic which prevented 251 unnecessary patient visits to the outpatient department over the course of the year. There was a significant 11-day reduction in waiting times between referral and review when comparing the radiographic to the conventional clinic (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip has a significant effect on the efficiency and overall cost-effectiveness of service provision in a tertiary referral centre.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:Triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) involves periacetabular osteotomies of the ilium, ischium, and pubis to reorient the acetabulum. This operation is indicated in certain situations for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip, dysplastic neuromuscular hips, and for containment of the femoral head in cases of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study compares radiographic outcomes of patients who underwent TPO using two different techniques and describes a novel single-incision direct lateral approach. TPO was performed on 22 patients by the senior author. The first 10 patients underwent TPO through a single-incision anterolateral approach. The last 12 patients underwent TPO using the direct lateral approach. Preoperative and postoperative pelvic radiographs were reviewed for each patient, and the migration index and center-edge angle were recorded. RESULTS:The migration index and center-edge angle were evaluated and were not found to be significantly different between the anterolateral and direct lateral groups. The direct lateral approach is described. CONCLUSION:The direct lateral approach for TPO is equivalent to the anterolateral approach on radiographic evaluation. Advantages of the direct lateral approach include direct visualization of the ischial osteotomy, effective mobilization of the acetabulum, and safety of the sciatic nerve.