Thalidomide leads to mandible hypoplasia through inhibiting angiogenesis and secondary hemorrhage in the fetal craniofacial region in rabbits.
- 作者列表："Zhao Y","Chen Q","Chen L","Shen SGF","Dai J
:The effect of thalidomide on mandibular development is unclear. In this study, thalidomide was delivered to pregnant rabbits from the 8th to 14th day of gestation. Then, embryos were harvested for examination on the 16th day (GD16), 20th day (GD20) and 24th day (GD24) of gestation. The results showed obvious hemorrhage and hematoma on one side of the craniofacial region in 50 % of the thalidomide-treated embryos and obvious hemorrhage and hematoma on both sides of the craniofacial region in 50 % of the thalidomide-treated embryos at GD16. Histological examination showed soft tissues and mandible defects on the affected side of the maxillofacial region. The expression of Vegf-α, Ki67 and Sox9 on the affected side was significantly down-regulated in comparison to their expression on the unaffected side at GD20. There was also an obvious defect in the affected mandible, and the density of the skull and mandible was decreased compared to the unaffected side or the control group at GD24. These findings demonstrated that thalidomide may lead to hemorrhage and hematoma in the craniofacial region by inhibiting angiogenesis, resulting in the abnormal development of cranial neural crest cells that are involved in the normal development of the mandible in rabbits.
: 沙利度胺对下颌骨发育的影响尚不清楚。本研究中，沙利度胺从妊娠第 8 天至第 14 天交付给孕兔。然后在妊娠第 16 天 (GD16) 、第 20 天 (GD20) 和第 24 天 (GD24) 采集胚胎进行检查。结果显示沙利度胺处理的胚胎中 50% 的颅面部一侧有明显的出血和血肿，沙利度胺处理的胚胎中 50% 的颅面部两侧有明显的出血和血肿-gd16 处理的胚胎。组织学检查显示颌面部患侧软组织及下颌骨缺损。Gd20 时，与健侧相比，患侧Vegf-α 、Ki67 和Sox9 的表达显著下调。患侧下颌骨也有明显缺损，gd24 时颅骨和下颌骨密度较健侧或对照组下降。这些发现表明沙利度胺可能通过抑制血管生成导致颅面区出血和血肿，导致参与兔下颌骨正常发育的颅神经嵴细胞异常发育。
METHODS::Impairments in social cognition have been frequently described in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and are thought to be a hallmark of difficulties in social interactions. The present study addresses aspects that are critical for everyday social cognitive functioning but have received little attention so far. Sixteen children with 22q11.2DS and 22 controls completed 1 task of facial expression recognition, 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to faceless characters involved in visually presented social interactions, and 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to characters involved in aurally presented dialogues. All three tasks have in common to involve processing of emotions. All participants also completed two tasks of attention and two tasks of visual spatial perception, and their parents completed some scales regarding behavioural problems of their children. Patients performed worse than controls in all three tasks of emotion processing, and even worse in the second and third tasks. However, they performed above chance level in all three tasks, and the results were independent of IQ, age and gender. The analysis of error patterns suggests that patients tend to coarsely categorize situations as either attractive or repulsive and also that they have difficulties in differentiating emotions that are associated with threats. An isolated association between the tasks of emotion and behaviour was found, showing that the more frequently patients with 22q11.2DS perceive happiness where there is not, the less they exhibit aggressive behaviour.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:We describe the first radiographic clinic in the literature for DDH and how this novel clinic can significantly improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of service in a tertiary referral centre. AIMS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip was introduced in 2017 in our institution. We performed a detailed cost analysis to assess the economic savings made with the introduction of this new clinic. We assessed the efficiency of the service by identifying how many unnecessary outpatient visits were prevented. We also assessed the difference in times from referral to review between the two clinics. METHODS:Analysis of the clinic activity in 2017 was possible as all data was collected prospectively by the DDH CNS and stored in our database. Cost analysis was performed, and the savings made per patient along with the financial benefit to our institution was recorded. RESULTS:The new radiographic clinic reduced the cost of reviewing one patient by €162.51 per patient. There was a 73% discharge rate from the clinic which prevented 251 unnecessary patient visits to the outpatient department over the course of the year. There was a significant 11-day reduction in waiting times between referral and review when comparing the radiographic to the conventional clinic (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip has a significant effect on the efficiency and overall cost-effectiveness of service provision in a tertiary referral centre.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:Triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) involves periacetabular osteotomies of the ilium, ischium, and pubis to reorient the acetabulum. This operation is indicated in certain situations for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip, dysplastic neuromuscular hips, and for containment of the femoral head in cases of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study compares radiographic outcomes of patients who underwent TPO using two different techniques and describes a novel single-incision direct lateral approach. TPO was performed on 22 patients by the senior author. The first 10 patients underwent TPO through a single-incision anterolateral approach. The last 12 patients underwent TPO using the direct lateral approach. Preoperative and postoperative pelvic radiographs were reviewed for each patient, and the migration index and center-edge angle were recorded. RESULTS:The migration index and center-edge angle were evaluated and were not found to be significantly different between the anterolateral and direct lateral groups. The direct lateral approach is described. CONCLUSION:The direct lateral approach for TPO is equivalent to the anterolateral approach on radiographic evaluation. Advantages of the direct lateral approach include direct visualization of the ischial osteotomy, effective mobilization of the acetabulum, and safety of the sciatic nerve.