Social grooming efficiency and techniques are influenced by manual impairment in free-ranging Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).
社会梳理效率和技术受自由放养日本猕猴 (Macaca fuscata) 的手动损伤的影响。
- 作者列表："Espitia-Contreras JP","Fedigan LM","Turner SE
:Animals born with physical impairments may particularly require behavioural flexibility and innovation to survive and carry out social activities, such as grooming. Studies on free-ranging Japanese macaques on Awaji Island, Japan, have shown that individuals with congenital limb malformations exhibited compensatory behaviours while grooming, such as increased mouth and elbow use for removing ectoparasites. The aim of this study is to explore disabled and nondisabled grooming techniques to determine whether and to what extent disabled monkeys develop novel grooming techniques, and if there is disability-associated variation in grooming efficiency. We hypothesized that modified grooming techniques used by disabled monkeys fulfilled the social and relaxing functions of grooming, however, that grooming by manually impaired individuals may still carry a hygienic cost to the recipients. Grooming behavioural data were collected by video in 2007 on 27 adult females (11 with CLMs). With a detailed grooming-related ethogram, we transcribed 216 2-minute continuous grooming video samples. We analyzed the data using generalized linear mixed effects models in R. We found that monkeys with manual impairment were less efficient groomers, as measured by removal and movement efficiency during grooming. However, there were no significant differences associated with the number of grooming movements per sample among the focal animals. Additionally, with a behavioural sequential analysis, we isolated 8 distinct grooming techniques and 3 novel disability-specific movements. Our results indicate that innovation and modification of movement types does not entirely compensate for manual disability, and that manual impairment carries a cost to the hygienic function of grooming. However, for the grooming recipient, the experience of being groomed by a disabled or nondisabled groomer is likely similar, and through movement compensation, disabled monkeys are able to engage in the social aspect of grooming without incurring any disability-associated costs.
: 天生有身体损伤的动物可能特别需要行为灵活性和创新来生存和开展社交活动，如梳理。对日本Awaji岛自由活动的日本猕猴的研究表明，先天性肢体畸形个体在梳理时表现出代偿行为，如增加口腔和肘部用于去除体外寄生虫。本研究的目的是探索残疾和非残疾的梳理技术，以确定残疾猴子是否以及在多大程度上发展出新的梳理技术，以及梳理效率是否存在残疾相关的变化。我们假设残疾猴子使用的改良梳理技术实现了梳理的社交和放松功能，然而，手动受损个体的梳理仍可能给接受者带来卫生成本。2007 年通过视频收集了 27 例成年女性 (11 例CLMs) 的梳理行为数据。借助详细的梳理相关行为学图，我们转录了 2 16 2 分钟的连续梳理视频样本。我们在R中使用广义线性混合效应模型分析了数据。我们发现，手动损伤的猴子是效率较低的美容师，通过梳理过程中的去除和运动效率来衡量。然而，在局灶性动物中，每个样本的梳理运动次数没有显著差异。此外，通过行为顺序分析，我们分离了 8 种不同的梳理技术和 3 种新型残疾特异性运动。我们的结果表明，运动类型的创新和修改并不能完全补偿体力障碍，体力障碍对仪容的卫生功能有代价。然而，对于梳理接受者来说，被残疾或非残疾美容师梳理的体验可能是相似的，并且通过运动补偿，残疾猴子能够参与美容的社会方面，而不会产生任何与残疾相关的费用。
METHODS::Impairments in social cognition have been frequently described in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and are thought to be a hallmark of difficulties in social interactions. The present study addresses aspects that are critical for everyday social cognitive functioning but have received little attention so far. Sixteen children with 22q11.2DS and 22 controls completed 1 task of facial expression recognition, 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to faceless characters involved in visually presented social interactions, and 1 task of attribution of facial expressions to characters involved in aurally presented dialogues. All three tasks have in common to involve processing of emotions. All participants also completed two tasks of attention and two tasks of visual spatial perception, and their parents completed some scales regarding behavioural problems of their children. Patients performed worse than controls in all three tasks of emotion processing, and even worse in the second and third tasks. However, they performed above chance level in all three tasks, and the results were independent of IQ, age and gender. The analysis of error patterns suggests that patients tend to coarsely categorize situations as either attractive or repulsive and also that they have difficulties in differentiating emotions that are associated with threats. An isolated association between the tasks of emotion and behaviour was found, showing that the more frequently patients with 22q11.2DS perceive happiness where there is not, the less they exhibit aggressive behaviour.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:We describe the first radiographic clinic in the literature for DDH and how this novel clinic can significantly improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of service in a tertiary referral centre. AIMS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip was introduced in 2017 in our institution. We performed a detailed cost analysis to assess the economic savings made with the introduction of this new clinic. We assessed the efficiency of the service by identifying how many unnecessary outpatient visits were prevented. We also assessed the difference in times from referral to review between the two clinics. METHODS:Analysis of the clinic activity in 2017 was possible as all data was collected prospectively by the DDH CNS and stored in our database. Cost analysis was performed, and the savings made per patient along with the financial benefit to our institution was recorded. RESULTS:The new radiographic clinic reduced the cost of reviewing one patient by €162.51 per patient. There was a 73% discharge rate from the clinic which prevented 251 unnecessary patient visits to the outpatient department over the course of the year. There was a significant 11-day reduction in waiting times between referral and review when comparing the radiographic to the conventional clinic (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:A radiographic clinic for the management of developmental dysplasia of the hip has a significant effect on the efficiency and overall cost-effectiveness of service provision in a tertiary referral centre.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:Triple pelvic osteotomy (TPO) involves periacetabular osteotomies of the ilium, ischium, and pubis to reorient the acetabulum. This operation is indicated in certain situations for the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip, dysplastic neuromuscular hips, and for containment of the femoral head in cases of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study compares radiographic outcomes of patients who underwent TPO using two different techniques and describes a novel single-incision direct lateral approach. TPO was performed on 22 patients by the senior author. The first 10 patients underwent TPO through a single-incision anterolateral approach. The last 12 patients underwent TPO using the direct lateral approach. Preoperative and postoperative pelvic radiographs were reviewed for each patient, and the migration index and center-edge angle were recorded. RESULTS:The migration index and center-edge angle were evaluated and were not found to be significantly different between the anterolateral and direct lateral groups. The direct lateral approach is described. CONCLUSION:The direct lateral approach for TPO is equivalent to the anterolateral approach on radiographic evaluation. Advantages of the direct lateral approach include direct visualization of the ischial osteotomy, effective mobilization of the acetabulum, and safety of the sciatic nerve.