Prosthetic joint infection due to Mycobacterium xenopi: a review of the literature with a new case report.
- 作者列表："Rodari P","Marocco S","Buonfrate D","Beltrame A","Piubelli C","Orza P","Fittipaldo VA","Bisoffi Z
PURPOSE:Extrapulmonary infections due to M. xenopi, particularly osteoarticular localizations, are rare. The purpose of this paper is to describe a case of prosthetic hip infection and to review the published literature on cases of M. xenopi osteoarticular infections. METHODS:Literature search was performed in the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Central (the Cochrane Library 2019, Issue 1), LILACS (BIREME) (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information database) and Clinical Trials databases (14th August 2018). We included all case reports and case series on adult patients diagnosed with bone or joint infection by M. xenopi for whom the treatment and outcome were specified. RESULTS:We retrieved 30 cases published between 1982 and 2012, among which 25 (83.3%) were reported from Europe. The two most common infection sites were spine (12/30, 40%) and knee (9/30, 30%). Risk factors for infection were previous invasive procedures (11/30, 36.7%), autoimmune disease (8/30, 26.7%), AIDS (4/30, 13.3%) and other comorbidities (2/30, 6.7%); five patients had no past medical history. All patients were treated with antibiotic combinations, but composition and duration of regimens hugely varied. Surgical intervention was performed in 16 patients (53.3%). Only 11 patients obtained full recovery of articular mobility after treatment. CONCLUSION:This work highlights the difficulties in diagnosing and treating M. xenopi osteoarticular infections. Globally, evidence supporting the best practice for diagnosis and treatment of this infection is scanty.
目的: 非洲爪蟾肺外感染少见，尤其是骨关节定位。本文旨在描述 1 例假体髋关节感染病例，并对已发表的关于非洲爪蟾骨关节感染病例的文献进行综述。 方法: 在以下数据库中进行文献检索: MEDLINE (PubMed) 、Embase、Central (the Cochrane Library 2019，Issue 1) 、LILACS (BIREME) (拉丁美洲和加勒比健康科学信息数据库) 和临床试验数据库 (2018 年 8 月 14 日)。我们纳入了所有诊断为非洲爪蟾骨或关节感染的成人患者的病例报告和病例系列，这些患者的治疗和结果均得到明确。 结果: 我们检索了 1982 年至 2012 年间发表的 30 例病例，其中 25 例 (83.3%) 来自欧洲。最常见的两个感染部位是脊柱 (12/30，40%) 和膝关节 (9/30，30%)。感染的危险因素为既往侵入性操作 (11/30，36.7%) 、自身免疫性疾病 (8/30，26.7%) 、AIDS (4/30，13.3%) 和其他合并症 (2/30，6.7%); 5 例患者无既往病史。所有患者均接受抗生素联合治疗，但治疗方案的组成和持续时间差异很大。手术干预 16 例 (53.3%)。只有 11 例患者治疗后关节活动度完全恢复。 结论: 该工作突出了诊断和治疗爪蟾骨关节感染的难点。在全球范围内，支持诊断和治疗这种感染的最佳实践的证据很少。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common complication after orthopedic surgery, which is not conducive to the prognosis of the elderly. AIMS:We performed this study to investigate the effects of oxycodone applied for patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) on postoperative cognitive function in elderly patients after total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS:Ninety-nine participants were enrolled and allocated into two groups: oxycodone group (group O) and sufentanil group (group S). The primary outcome was the incidence of POCD, diagnosed according to the changes in the Mini-mental status examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores. The secondary outcomes included the plasma levels of S-100B protein and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), the amount of postoperative analgesic consumption and the incidence of adverse reactions. RESULTS:The incidence of POCD was significantly lower in patients receiving oxycodone up to the 3rd postoperative day (POD, 1st POD 27.3% vs. 51.1%, P = 0.021; 3rd POD 20.5% vs. 40.0%, P = 0.045), as compared to patients receiving sufentanil. The MMSE and MoCA scores of both groups decreased to varying degrees. However, compared with group S, the MMSE scores at 1st POD, 3rd POD, 5th POD and 7st POD in group O were higher than that in group S, while MoCA scores at 1st POD, 3rd POD and 5th POD in group O were higher. Compared with group S, the plasma levels of S-100B protein in group O at 4 h, 8 h, 12 h post-surgery were lower. While the plasma levels of NSE in group O at 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, 24 h post-surgery were lower. Number of PCIA boluses and consumption of analgesic drug during the first two POD were similar between two groups. However, postoperative incidence of nausea, vomiting and pruritus was significantly lower in patients receiving oxycodone. CONCLUSION:Oxycodone applied for PCIA in elderly patients after THA could reduce the incidence of POCD, improve postoperative cognitive function and decrease the adverse reactions.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Primary treatment for Blount disease has changed in the last decade from osteotomies or staples to tension band plate (TBP)-guided hemiepiphysiodesis. However, implant-related issues have been frequently reported with Blount cases. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the surgical failure rates of TBP in Blount disease and characterize predictors for failure. METHODS:We performed an Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective chart-review of pediatric patients with Blount disease to evaluate the results of TBP from 2008 to 2017 and a systematic literature review. Blount cases defined as pathologic tibia-vara with HKA (hip-knee-ankle) axis and MDA (metaphyseal-diaphyseal angle) deviations ≥11 degrees were included in the analysis. Surgical failure was categorized as mechanical and functional failure. We studied both patient and implant-related characteristics and compared our results with a systematic review. RESULTS:In 61 limbs of 40 patients with mean follow-up of 38 months, we found 41% (25/61) overall surgical failure rate and 11% (7/61) mechanical failure rate corresponding to 11% to 100% (range) and 0% to 50% (range) in 8 other studies. Statistical comparison between our surgical failure and nonfailure groups showed significant differences in deformity (P=0.001), plate material (P=0.042), and obesity (P=0.044) in univariate analysis. The odds of surgical failure increased by 1.2 times with severe deformity and 5.9 times with titanium TBP in the multivariate analysis after individual risk-factor adjustment. All 7 mechanical failures involved breakage of cannulated screws on the metaphyseal side. CONCLUSIONS:Most of the studies have reported high failure rates of TBP in Blount cases. Besides patient-related risk factors like obesity and deformity, titanium TBP seems to be an independent risk factor for failure. Solid screws were protective for mechanical failure, but not for functional failure. In conclusion, efficacy of TBP still needs to be proven in Blount disease and implant design may warrant reassessment. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level III-retrospective comparative study with a systematic review.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:As cancer treatments continue to improve the overall survival rates, more patients with a history of cancer will present for anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). Therefore, it is essential for orthopaedic surgeons to understand the differences in care required by this growing subpopulation. Although the current research suggests that good outcomes can be predicted when appropriately optimized patients with cancer undergo lower extremity total joint arthroplasty, similar studies for TSA are lacking. The primary study question was to examine whether a history of cancer was associated with an increased rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after TSA. Secondarily, we sought to examine any association between a history of prostate and breast cancer and surgical or medical complications after TSA. METHODS:Using a national insurance database, male patients with a history of prostate cancer and female patients with a history of breast cancer undergoing anatomic TSA for primary osteoarthritis were identified and compared with control subjects matched 3:1 based on age, sex, diabetes mellitus, and tobacco use. Patients with a history of VTE and patients who underwent reverse TSA or hemiarthroplasty were excluded. RESULTS:Female patients with a history of breast cancer and male patients with a history of prostate cancer undergoing TSA had significantly higher incidences of acute VTE (including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) compared with matched control subjects (female patients: odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.81; P = 0.024 and male patients: odds ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 1.79; P = 0.023). No significant differences were noted in the incidences of any other complications assessed. CONCLUSION:Although a personal history of these malignancies does represent a statistically significant risk factor for acute VTE after anatomic TSA, the overall VTE rate remains modest and acceptable. The rates of other surgical and medical complications are not significantly increased in patients with a history of these cancers after TSA compared with control subjects.