The Song Classification Is Reliable and Guides Prognosis and Treatment for Pediatric Lateral Condyle Fractures: An Independent Validation Study With Treatment Algorithm.
- 作者列表："Ramo BA","Funk SS","Elliott ME","Jo CH
BACKGROUND:Lateral condyle fractures account for 15% to 20% of pediatric elbow fractures. Among numerous proposed classification systems, the Song classification appears the most comprehensive. The utility of any classification system relies on its ability to be descriptive, reproducible, and to guide prognosis/treatment. We assessed the Song classification by applying it to 736 retrospectively treated patients. METHODS:A total of 736 pediatric patients with lateral condyle fractures were identified between 2007 and 2014. In total, 60 patients were selected for a radiographic interclass and intraclass correlation study. Radiographs of the patients were reviewed by 6 observers, who independently measured radiographs for displacement on radiographs and assigned a Song classification. Treatment and outcomes were then reviewed on all 736 patients and evaluated as a successful outcome when achieving a healed fracture at discharge without significant complication or necessitating a change from initial treatment modality. RESULTS:Weighted κ values for intrarater and interrater reliability to assign Song classification indicated excellent agreement. Intraclass correlation coefficients of 6 observers measuring displacement on radiographs in millimeters indicated good to excellent agreement. In total, 106 Song 1 fracture were primarily treated by casting alone and only 5.5% required conversion to operative intervention. Overall, 139 Song 2 fractures were treated by closed treatment (n=114, 82% successful nonoperatively, 16% converted to operative management) or surgical means (n=25, 100% success) without treatment superiority (P>0.999) and both modalities had high success rates. Song 3 fractures (n=17) demonstrated a failure rate of 80% with casting (n=10) and were better managed by closed reduction and percutaneous pinning (n=7, 100% success, P=0.002). Song 4 (n=325) fractures had low success rate (34%) with casting (n=35), but achieved higher success rates (P<0.001) when managed with either closed (n=57) or open reduction (n=233) and pin fixation (89.5% and 92.7% success, respectively, P=0.401). Song 5 fractures (n=149) generally required an open reduction in our series with good success rates (91.2%). CONCLUSION:This study validates the Song classification with high interobserver and intraobserver reliability. The Song classification improves on existing classification systems by better distinguishing fractures at risk for failure of nonoperative treatment and guiding treatment outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level IV.
背景: 外侧髁骨折占儿童肘部骨折的 15% ~ 20%。在众多提议的分类系统中，歌曲分类似乎是最全面的。任何分类系统的效用都依赖于其描述性、可重复性和指导预后/治疗的能力。我们通过将其应用于 736 例回顾性治疗患者来评估歌曲分类。 方法: 2007 年至 736 年间共有 2014 例儿童外髁骨折患者。总共选择了 60 例患者进行影像学组间和组内相关性研究。由 6 名观察者审查患者的x光片，他们独立测量x光片上的位移并分配歌曲分类。然后回顾了所有 736 例患者的治疗和结果，并在出院时实现骨折愈合而无明显并发症或需要改变初始治疗方式时评价为成功的结果。 结果: 分配歌曲分类的组内和评定者间信度的加权 κ 值表明一致性极好。6 名观察者在x线片上测量位移的组内相关系数 (以毫米为单位) 表明良好到极好的一致性。总共有 106 例Song 1 骨折仅通过铸造治疗，仅 5.5% 例需要中转手术干预。总体而言，采用闭合治疗 (n = 139，非手术治疗成功 114，中转手术治疗 82%) 或手术方式 (n = 25，成功 16%) 治疗Song 2 型骨折 100% 例无治疗优势 (P>0.999)，两种方式均有较高的成功率。Song 3 骨折 (n = 17) 显示铸造失败率为 80% (n = 10)，通过闭合复位和经皮穿针治疗效果更好 (n = 7，成功率 100%，P = 0.002)。宋 4 (n = 325) 骨折与铸造 (n = 35) 成功率低 (34%)，但取得了更高的成功率 (P<0.001) 当采用闭合 (n = 57) 或切开复位 (n = 233) 和针固定 (成功率分别为 89.5% 和 92.7%，P = 0.401) 管理时。宋 5 骨折 (n = 149) 在我们的系列中通常需要切开复位，成功率良好 (91.2%)。 结论: 本研究验证了具有较高观察者间和观察者内信度的歌曲分类。Song分类通过更好地区分非手术治疗失败的骨折风险和指导治疗结果，改进了现有的分类系统。 证据级别: IV级。
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common complication after orthopedic surgery, which is not conducive to the prognosis of the elderly. AIMS:We performed this study to investigate the effects of oxycodone applied for patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) on postoperative cognitive function in elderly patients after total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS:Ninety-nine participants were enrolled and allocated into two groups: oxycodone group (group O) and sufentanil group (group S). The primary outcome was the incidence of POCD, diagnosed according to the changes in the Mini-mental status examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores. The secondary outcomes included the plasma levels of S-100B protein and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), the amount of postoperative analgesic consumption and the incidence of adverse reactions. RESULTS:The incidence of POCD was significantly lower in patients receiving oxycodone up to the 3rd postoperative day (POD, 1st POD 27.3% vs. 51.1%, P = 0.021; 3rd POD 20.5% vs. 40.0%, P = 0.045), as compared to patients receiving sufentanil. The MMSE and MoCA scores of both groups decreased to varying degrees. However, compared with group S, the MMSE scores at 1st POD, 3rd POD, 5th POD and 7st POD in group O were higher than that in group S, while MoCA scores at 1st POD, 3rd POD and 5th POD in group O were higher. Compared with group S, the plasma levels of S-100B protein in group O at 4 h, 8 h, 12 h post-surgery were lower. While the plasma levels of NSE in group O at 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, 24 h post-surgery were lower. Number of PCIA boluses and consumption of analgesic drug during the first two POD were similar between two groups. However, postoperative incidence of nausea, vomiting and pruritus was significantly lower in patients receiving oxycodone. CONCLUSION:Oxycodone applied for PCIA in elderly patients after THA could reduce the incidence of POCD, improve postoperative cognitive function and decrease the adverse reactions.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Primary treatment for Blount disease has changed in the last decade from osteotomies or staples to tension band plate (TBP)-guided hemiepiphysiodesis. However, implant-related issues have been frequently reported with Blount cases. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the surgical failure rates of TBP in Blount disease and characterize predictors for failure. METHODS:We performed an Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective chart-review of pediatric patients with Blount disease to evaluate the results of TBP from 2008 to 2017 and a systematic literature review. Blount cases defined as pathologic tibia-vara with HKA (hip-knee-ankle) axis and MDA (metaphyseal-diaphyseal angle) deviations ≥11 degrees were included in the analysis. Surgical failure was categorized as mechanical and functional failure. We studied both patient and implant-related characteristics and compared our results with a systematic review. RESULTS:In 61 limbs of 40 patients with mean follow-up of 38 months, we found 41% (25/61) overall surgical failure rate and 11% (7/61) mechanical failure rate corresponding to 11% to 100% (range) and 0% to 50% (range) in 8 other studies. Statistical comparison between our surgical failure and nonfailure groups showed significant differences in deformity (P=0.001), plate material (P=0.042), and obesity (P=0.044) in univariate analysis. The odds of surgical failure increased by 1.2 times with severe deformity and 5.9 times with titanium TBP in the multivariate analysis after individual risk-factor adjustment. All 7 mechanical failures involved breakage of cannulated screws on the metaphyseal side. CONCLUSIONS:Most of the studies have reported high failure rates of TBP in Blount cases. Besides patient-related risk factors like obesity and deformity, titanium TBP seems to be an independent risk factor for failure. Solid screws were protective for mechanical failure, but not for functional failure. In conclusion, efficacy of TBP still needs to be proven in Blount disease and implant design may warrant reassessment. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level III-retrospective comparative study with a systematic review.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:As cancer treatments continue to improve the overall survival rates, more patients with a history of cancer will present for anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). Therefore, it is essential for orthopaedic surgeons to understand the differences in care required by this growing subpopulation. Although the current research suggests that good outcomes can be predicted when appropriately optimized patients with cancer undergo lower extremity total joint arthroplasty, similar studies for TSA are lacking. The primary study question was to examine whether a history of cancer was associated with an increased rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after TSA. Secondarily, we sought to examine any association between a history of prostate and breast cancer and surgical or medical complications after TSA. METHODS:Using a national insurance database, male patients with a history of prostate cancer and female patients with a history of breast cancer undergoing anatomic TSA for primary osteoarthritis were identified and compared with control subjects matched 3:1 based on age, sex, diabetes mellitus, and tobacco use. Patients with a history of VTE and patients who underwent reverse TSA or hemiarthroplasty were excluded. RESULTS:Female patients with a history of breast cancer and male patients with a history of prostate cancer undergoing TSA had significantly higher incidences of acute VTE (including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) compared with matched control subjects (female patients: odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.81; P = 0.024 and male patients: odds ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 1.79; P = 0.023). No significant differences were noted in the incidences of any other complications assessed. CONCLUSION:Although a personal history of these malignancies does represent a statistically significant risk factor for acute VTE after anatomic TSA, the overall VTE rate remains modest and acceptable. The rates of other surgical and medical complications are not significantly increased in patients with a history of these cancers after TSA compared with control subjects.