Impact of Multifidus Muscle Swelling on C5 Palsy After Cervical Laminoplasty.
- 作者列表："Usami Y","Nakaya Y","Hayama S","Nakano A","Fujishiro T","Neo M
STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective radiological analysis OBJECTIVE.: The aim of this study was to identify the effects of posterior cervical muscle swelling on C5 palsy (C5P) by evaluating early postoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:Cervical laminoplasty is an established technique, but the risk of C5P after surgery has not been fully resolved. Studies have reported that lateral stretching and postoperative swelling of the multifidus muscle may cause stretching of the medial branches and cervical nerves. METHODS:A total of 214 C5 nerves of 107 consecutive patients who underwent laminoplasty were examined. We reviewed their demographic and surgical data and radiographic and MR images as parameters, including the axial cross-sectional area (CSA) of the posterior muscles. The patients and C5 nerves were divided into C5P and non-C5P groups. The parameters and changes were compared between the two groups to examine correlations with C5P. RESULTS:In demographic data, age, sex, history of smoking, diabetes mellitus, and preoperative Japanese Orthopedic Association scores were not significantly different between the groups. Only body mass index (BMI) was significantly higher in the C5P group. Regarding the surgical and imaging data, the number of laminoplasty, operative time, decompression trough width, cervical sagittal alignment, preoperative spinal cord rotation, and posterior shift of the spinal cord were not significantly different, but the multifidus CSA change ratio was significantly higher in the C5P group. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that the multifidus CSA change ratio and BMI were significant independent factors. CONCLUSION:Multifidus swelling is associated with C5P, possibly through traction of the C5 nerve via the medial branches of the cervical dorsal rami. The medial branch is the shortest of the dorsal rami and may have the largest effect by traction force. Therefore, a gentle maneuver of the deep posterior muscles during surgery is a potential countermeasure to prevent C5P. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:3.
研究设计: 回顾性放射学分析目的。:本研究的目的是通过评价术后早期磁共振 (MR) 图像，确定颈后肌肿胀对C5 麻痹 (C5P) 的影响。 背景资料摘要: 颈椎管成形术是一种既定的技术，但术后C5P的风险尚未完全解决。有研究报道，多裂肌的外侧拉伸和术后肿胀可能引起内侧支和颈神经的拉伸。 方法: 对 214 例接受椎板成形术的连续患者共 107 条C5 神经进行检查。我们回顾了他们的人口统计学和手术数据以及影像学和MR图像作为参数，包括后肌的轴向横截面积 (CSA)。将患者和C5 神经分为C5P组和non-C5P组。比较两组之间的参数和变化，以检验与C5P的相关性。 结果: 在人口统计学资料中，年龄、性别、吸烟史、糖尿病和术前日本骨科协会评分在各组之间无显著差异。C5P组仅体重指数 (BMI) 显著增高。关于手术和影像学资料，椎板成形术的数量、手术时间、减压槽宽度、颈椎矢状位对线、术前脊髓旋转、脊髓后移无明显差异，但C5P组多裂肌CSA变化率明显高于对照组。多元logistic回归分析显示，多裂肌CSA变化率和BMI是显著的独立因素。 结论: 多裂肌肿胀与C5P有关，可能是通过颈背支内侧支牵引C5 神经引起的。内侧支是背侧支中最短的，可能通过牵引力产生最大的作用。因此，在手术过程中温和地操作后深肌肉是预防C5P的潜在对策。 证据级别: 3.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a common complication after orthopedic surgery, which is not conducive to the prognosis of the elderly. AIMS:We performed this study to investigate the effects of oxycodone applied for patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) on postoperative cognitive function in elderly patients after total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS:Ninety-nine participants were enrolled and allocated into two groups: oxycodone group (group O) and sufentanil group (group S). The primary outcome was the incidence of POCD, diagnosed according to the changes in the Mini-mental status examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores. The secondary outcomes included the plasma levels of S-100B protein and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), the amount of postoperative analgesic consumption and the incidence of adverse reactions. RESULTS:The incidence of POCD was significantly lower in patients receiving oxycodone up to the 3rd postoperative day (POD, 1st POD 27.3% vs. 51.1%, P = 0.021; 3rd POD 20.5% vs. 40.0%, P = 0.045), as compared to patients receiving sufentanil. The MMSE and MoCA scores of both groups decreased to varying degrees. However, compared with group S, the MMSE scores at 1st POD, 3rd POD, 5th POD and 7st POD in group O were higher than that in group S, while MoCA scores at 1st POD, 3rd POD and 5th POD in group O were higher. Compared with group S, the plasma levels of S-100B protein in group O at 4 h, 8 h, 12 h post-surgery were lower. While the plasma levels of NSE in group O at 4 h, 8 h, 12 h, 24 h post-surgery were lower. Number of PCIA boluses and consumption of analgesic drug during the first two POD were similar between two groups. However, postoperative incidence of nausea, vomiting and pruritus was significantly lower in patients receiving oxycodone. CONCLUSION:Oxycodone applied for PCIA in elderly patients after THA could reduce the incidence of POCD, improve postoperative cognitive function and decrease the adverse reactions.
METHODS:BACKGROUND:Primary treatment for Blount disease has changed in the last decade from osteotomies or staples to tension band plate (TBP)-guided hemiepiphysiodesis. However, implant-related issues have been frequently reported with Blount cases. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the surgical failure rates of TBP in Blount disease and characterize predictors for failure. METHODS:We performed an Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective chart-review of pediatric patients with Blount disease to evaluate the results of TBP from 2008 to 2017 and a systematic literature review. Blount cases defined as pathologic tibia-vara with HKA (hip-knee-ankle) axis and MDA (metaphyseal-diaphyseal angle) deviations ≥11 degrees were included in the analysis. Surgical failure was categorized as mechanical and functional failure. We studied both patient and implant-related characteristics and compared our results with a systematic review. RESULTS:In 61 limbs of 40 patients with mean follow-up of 38 months, we found 41% (25/61) overall surgical failure rate and 11% (7/61) mechanical failure rate corresponding to 11% to 100% (range) and 0% to 50% (range) in 8 other studies. Statistical comparison between our surgical failure and nonfailure groups showed significant differences in deformity (P=0.001), plate material (P=0.042), and obesity (P=0.044) in univariate analysis. The odds of surgical failure increased by 1.2 times with severe deformity and 5.9 times with titanium TBP in the multivariate analysis after individual risk-factor adjustment. All 7 mechanical failures involved breakage of cannulated screws on the metaphyseal side. CONCLUSIONS:Most of the studies have reported high failure rates of TBP in Blount cases. Besides patient-related risk factors like obesity and deformity, titanium TBP seems to be an independent risk factor for failure. Solid screws were protective for mechanical failure, but not for functional failure. In conclusion, efficacy of TBP still needs to be proven in Blount disease and implant design may warrant reassessment. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level III-retrospective comparative study with a systematic review.
METHODS:INTRODUCTION:As cancer treatments continue to improve the overall survival rates, more patients with a history of cancer will present for anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). Therefore, it is essential for orthopaedic surgeons to understand the differences in care required by this growing subpopulation. Although the current research suggests that good outcomes can be predicted when appropriately optimized patients with cancer undergo lower extremity total joint arthroplasty, similar studies for TSA are lacking. The primary study question was to examine whether a history of cancer was associated with an increased rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after TSA. Secondarily, we sought to examine any association between a history of prostate and breast cancer and surgical or medical complications after TSA. METHODS:Using a national insurance database, male patients with a history of prostate cancer and female patients with a history of breast cancer undergoing anatomic TSA for primary osteoarthritis were identified and compared with control subjects matched 3:1 based on age, sex, diabetes mellitus, and tobacco use. Patients with a history of VTE and patients who underwent reverse TSA or hemiarthroplasty were excluded. RESULTS:Female patients with a history of breast cancer and male patients with a history of prostate cancer undergoing TSA had significantly higher incidences of acute VTE (including deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) compared with matched control subjects (female patients: odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.81; P = 0.024 and male patients: odds ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 1.79; P = 0.023). No significant differences were noted in the incidences of any other complications assessed. CONCLUSION:Although a personal history of these malignancies does represent a statistically significant risk factor for acute VTE after anatomic TSA, the overall VTE rate remains modest and acceptable. The rates of other surgical and medical complications are not significantly increased in patients with a history of these cancers after TSA compared with control subjects.